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ISSN : 2092-674X (Print)
ISSN : 2092-6758 (Online)
Asia-Pacific Collaborative education Journal Vol.13 No.1 pp.5-19
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.14580/apcj.2017.13.1.05

Relationship between Class Size and Students’ Participation on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria

Adesoji A. ONI (Ph.D), Arinola Agness Aguda OLUWO (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations,Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Akoka-Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract

This study investigated the relationship between class size and students’ participation on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Nigeria. The population for this study comprised all the Senior Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State. The study adopted descriptive survey design and random sampling technique was used in arriving at the selection of two hundred and seventy (270) students and thirty (30) teachers among the population of senior secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area in Lagos State, which formed the sample of this study. Specifically, students and teachers were randomly selected from six Senior Secondary schools in Mainland Local Government in Lagos State. Forty five (45) Senior Secondary school students and five (5) teachers were randomly sampled from each school. Two self- developed, structured and validated questionnaires (students’ questionnaire and teachers’ questionnaire) of 15 items for teachers’ questionnaire and 18 items for students’ questionnaire were used to collect information from the students and teachers after its validity and reliability were determined. The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, simple percentage while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical tool was used for hypothesis testing at 0.05 levels of significance. The study revealed that: there is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance. There is significant difference between the students’ participation and their academics performance in secondary schools. There is no significance relationship between students’ perception of class size and the academic performance. There is no significance relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance.

초록


 Introduction

The increase in population over time has brought about migration to urban centers in search of greener pastures. The migration has brought about congestion in the urban centers, this includes enrollment in the Nigerian educational system. The current explosion in the enrolment in the Nigeria educational system has created a situation called educational explosion (Okoye-Nebo, 2012). This has resulted in the increase of class size for teachers/pupil ratio. A class meant for 25 students is now taking nothing less than 100 students, which lead to low students participation and ultimately affecting their academic performance.  Class size increase during the period of financial hardships, teacher shortages and population explosion, which led to a lack of participation by students in the classroom, is a continuous interest to educators, who are responsible for exercising sound stewardship over students, schools and  resources.

On the average, student’s achievement increases as class size is reduced and the advantage rises sharply for a class of 15 and below. Reductions in size from say, 28 to 25 are projected to make only a small difference in average achievement. The medium through which the attainment of individuals and the nation’s educational goals can be achieved is learning. Learning outcomes have become a phenomenon of interest to all and this accounts for the reason why scholars have been working hard to unravel factors that militate against good academic performance.

Class size is typically defined as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily responsible during a school year. The teacher may teach in a self-contained classroom or provide instruction in one subject (Lewitt & Baker, 1997). Achilles (2003) gave the following example of class size: “Average class-size is the sum of all students regular in each teacher's class divided by the actual number of regular teachers in those specific classes. If the four second grade rooms have 14, 16, 18, 18 (n = 66) the average grade two-class size is 16”. “Class size is generally best defined in the traditional elementary school grades, where a single teacher is responsible for a self-contained classroom, and the definition gets progressively more problematical as the instructional program becomes more complex” (Hanushek, 1999). Although there is a slight discrepancy among the actual numbers, pupil-teacher ratio is significantly lower than average class size. The difference nationally between class size and pupil-teacher ratio is about 10 pupils (Achilles, 2003). Bracey (1999) wrote that the average pupil/teacher ratio is around 17:1, and the average class size is 23 for elementary schools and 25 for high schools. By Bracey’s accounts, the difference between class size and pupil-teacher ratio is between six and eight students.

Regardless of the definition one uses, class size has been difficult to measure due to the dynamic nature of classrooms (adults and students move in and out of classrooms), a variety of classroom models (pull outs, resource rooms, aides, specialists), and a lack of precise measurements of what occurs in schools and classrooms (pupil-teacher ratios, pupil-professional ratios, class size based on the number of students assigned to a given teacher) (Reichardt, 2000). The lack of a common agreement as to what constitutes a small class or even an ideal class has made it difficult to compare research studies. Any ratio is, at best, a crude indicator of how much teacher attention any pupil receives. One hopes that as the total number of pupils in a class decreases, the teacher will be able to provide more appropriate, personal instruction for every pupil. Probably everyone who has ever taught a class has experienced a situation where some students are more engaged in what goes on in the class than others. The engaged students are more attentive, excited, involved, and eager to participate. From the perspective of the instructor, it would seem that there would be a strong positive correlation between students’ participation and students’ achievement.

In many countries over the world, including Nigeria, there has been a widely reported debate over the educational consequences of class size differences. Opinions vary from those academics and policy makers who argue that class size reduction is not cost effective to those who argue that it should be a main feature of educational policy. In some countries policy has changed in favor of small classes. In the U.S.A, over 30 states have enacted legislation for class size reduction (CSR) programs. Current Government policy in England and Wales is for a maximum class size of 30 for pupils aged 47 years, and larger cuts are planned in Scotland. There have been initiatives involving class size or pupil to adult ratio reductions in the Netherlands and New Zealand. In East Asia, many countries and cities including Shanghai in the Chinese Mainland, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Korea and Japan have implemented ‘small class teaching’ initiatives. Also in Nigeria, there is agitation for small class size. Most attention has been paid to whether or not smaller classes lead to better academic outcomes for pupils. However, it is now recognized by many and not just critics of class size reductions - that in order to better understand the effects of class size, and help facilitate better classroom environments and effectiveness, we need to know more about effects on what goes on in classrooms, that is, classroom ‘processes’ such as interactions between teachers and pupils and pupil behavior.

Academic achievement of students especially at the secondary school level is not only a pointer to the effectiveness or otherwise of schools but a major determinant of the future of youths in particular and the nation in general. The medium through which the attainment of individuals and the nation’s educational goals can be achieved is learning. Learning outcomes have become a phenomenon of interest to all and this accounts for the reason why scholars have been working hard to unravel factors that militate against good academic performance (Aremu & Sokan, 2002). This phenomenon has been variedly referred to in literature review as academic achievement, or scholastic functioning.  Academic achievement of learners has attracted attention of scholars, parents, policy-makers and planners.

Adeyemo (2001) opined that the major goal of the school is to work towards the attainment of academic excellence by students. According to him, the school may have other peripheral objectives; emphasis is always placed on the achievement of sound scholarship. Besides, virtually everybody concerned with education places premium on academic achievement; excellent academic achievement of children is often the expectation of parents (Osiki, 2001). At the outset of an activity, students differ in learning as a function of their prior experiences, personal qualities and social supports. The latter includes the extent that parents and teachers encourage them to learn, facilitate their access to resources necessary for learning, and teach them strategies that enhance skill acquisition and refinement. Parent’s academic aspirations for their children influence their children’s academic achievements, both directly and indirectly (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, and Pastorelli, 2001).

Class size is an important factor with respect to academic performance of students. There is a consensus among researchers and educational scholars that, student’s achievement decreases as class size increases. The effect of class- size on cognitive achievement has been debated and researched for many years, this has been inconclusive. Class size refers to educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school. In emphasizing the importance of class-size to the learning teaching process, All Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) recommended a maximum of forty students per class for efficient and effective teaching.

The influence of class size on the quality of output in secondary schools revealed that schools having an average class size of 35 and below obtained better results in the secondary school certificate examination (SSCE) than schools having more than 35 students per class (Adeyemi, 2008). Class size had a negative coefficient with students’ academic examination performance (Oguntoye, 2011). Earthman (2002) revealed that comfortable classroom temperature and smaller classes enhance teachers’ effectiveness and provide opportunities for students to receive individual attention, ask more questions, participate fully in discussion, reduce discipline problems and perform better than students in schools with larger classes. There is a gap in the quality of students in crowded classrooms, using inadequate and absolute equipment, disillusioned teachers. These combined deficiencies perhaps affected the student’s academic performance (Fafunwa, 2010). Large class size is not conducive for serious academic work (Adeyela, 2000). Similarly, an alarming class size of 100 or more students in the secondary schools leave the teacher overworked and therefore unable to exercise patience and a positive attitude (Egede, 2005). They are also reluctant to offer extra time to build and help the intellectually ill students.

Class size negatively relates to school academic performance (Ojoawo, 2008). Coleman (2002) pointed out that for enthusiastic teachers, “If classes are very large, it is important that as far as possible, the learners should be constantly busy and the tasks should function continuously without repeated intervention from the teacher”. Broozer and Rouse (2001) considered finance, class size, teacher quality, length of school year and technology as factors that can improve a student’s academic outcomes. They suggested that money is crucial when it comes to public school matters and that small class size yields better achievement.  A study carried out on class size and academic achievement of students found that the performance of students in large classes was very low (23%) compared to those students in smaller classes (64%), (Yara, 2010).

According to Leo-Fred (2000) many people blamed the effect on lack of adequate resources shortage in schools, overemphasis on certificate, overcrowding and pupil teachers` ratios too. Indeed in most developed countries, efforts have been made to reduce pupils-teacher ratio to as low as 10:1, other resorted to individual instructions, programmed learning, team teaching etc. to offset over population in the classroom.

To this end we could see that Nigerian education system is progressively becoming more and more complex.  But the catalogues of sources show that Nigerian public secondary schools are becoming over congested and thereby leading to a decline in the quality of teaching and learning.  Based on this, the research work contains the researchers’ contributions that would be of help and useful to education policy planners, Educationist, Ministry of Education authorities, Stakeholders, school administrations and management in senior schools towards helping  students and to improve the quality of facilities in the education system.  Apart from the above, the research will provide valuable information on the influence of different interacting factors on the effects of class size on the teaching and learning in our secondary schools. The content of the study will also serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out further research.

It is against this background that this study examines the relationship between class size and students’ participation on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Statement of the Problem

There has been a continued decline in the academic achievement of students in our secondary schools and this is triggered by the escalation in the number of students who fail or perform woefully in continuous assessment testing, promotional examinations and uncontrollable increases in class population. These problems also surface in external examinations such as the Junior Secondary Certificate examinations (JSCE) and the Senior Secondary Examinations (SSCE). Painfully, students are now failing subjects like Mathematics and English language, which are compulsory prerequisites to gain admission into any higher institution by the latter.

Due to these problems, most of the students have had to repeat a class and as in the case of the external examinations, they have to stay at home to wait for another year in order to re-sit for another examination. This issue has become a source of concern even to school administrators, parents, guardians, teachers, principals, district boards of education, the Ministry of Education, students themselves and the society at large.

The study therefore seeks to investigate the relationship between class size and participation on academic performance of secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Research Questions

In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the following research questions will be addressed:

 

1. What is the relationship between the class size and the academic performance of Secondary Students in Mainland Lagos State, Nigeria?
2. What are the effects of class size and participation on the students’ characteristics on academic performance?
3. What are the perceptions of teachers and students on class size and participation and its effects on the academic performance Secondary students?

Hypotheses

1. There is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance of Secondary Students in Mainland Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria.
2. There is no significant difference between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools in Mainland Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria.
3. There is no significance relationship between students’ perception of class size and academic performance of Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria.
4. There is no significance relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and academic performance of Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Methodology

The descriptive survey design was used for this study. This design is relevant because it provides a wide scope for obtaining information. The area for this research work is in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The population for the study comprised all Senior Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of two hundred and seventy (270) students and thirty teachers (30) among the population of Senior Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria formed the sample for this study. Specifically, students and teachers were randomly selected from six Senior Secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Forty five senior secondary school students and five teachers were randomly sampled from each school. The random sampling technique was used for the study. This sampling was suitable because it ensured homogeneity of the sample.

Two self- developed, structured and validated questionnaires (students’ questionnaire and teachers’ questionnaire) were designed in two major sections. Section A deals with the personal information of the respondents. For the students’, questionnaire the participants were expected to provide information on their age, gender and score in the last Mathematics and English exams, while with the teachers’ questionnaire participants were expected to provide information on their age, gender, academic qualifications and years of teaching. Section B contained eighteen items for the students’ questionnaire and fifteen items for the teachers’ questionnaire to elicit responses from the respondents. Section B was divided into two sub-scales for the students’ questionnaire, namely: Class size, students’ participation while in the teachers’ questionnaire, Section B has only one sub-scale which is class size.

The response format for the instrument was 4-point attitudinal scale types i.e. Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD).  Items generated were assessed for face and content validity with the help of a supervisor and measurement experts/colleagues in measurement and evaluation.  The instrument was piloted on twenty participants, a selected sample similar to the actual sample that was included in the study. The pilot study was meant to reveal deficiencies in the instrument and allowed the researcher to make meaningful modifications to the instrument. After being administrated to the pilot group, separate scores were assigned to every respondent on the two halves. The reliability of the scores was then estimated using the Spearman-Brown formula. The overall reliability of the scale was found to be 0.65. This index was greater than 0.5. This means that there was a positive correlation between the pretest and the post test. Consequently, the questionnaire was deemed be reliable and appropriate for use in this study. The first step in data collection was to get approval from the supervisor to proceed for fieldwork. The research questionnaires were administered by the researcher. The questionnaires were collected the same day on completion. After the exercise, all the instruments were pooled ready for data analysis.

The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, simple percentage, and the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical tool was used because it is the most appropriate statistical tool since the data generated is continuous in nature and the hypotheses formulated required the establishment of a significant relationship between variables .  The data collected were analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software.

Results

Descriptive Analysis of Socio-Demographic Data

Table 1: Distribution of participants according to gender

 

 

Table 1 show that 32.4% of the student participants are male while 67.6% are female. The majority of the student participants are female. This could be as a result of the fact that the number of female students in schools is usually more than male students.

 

Table 2: Distribution of participants according to gender of teachers

 

 

Table 2 shows that 36.8% of the teacher participants are male, while 63.2% are female. The majority of the teacher participants are female. This could be as a result of the fact that the number of female teachers in schools is usually more than male teachers.

 

Table 3: Distribution of participants according to age

 

 

Table 3 show that out of the total 262 student participants 45, or 17.2%, belonged to the youngest age bracket of 10 to 12 years of age; 99, or 37.8%, belonged to the age bracket of 13-15 years of age; 95, or 36.3%, belonged to the age bracket of 16-18 years of age while the remaining 23, or 8.8%, fall within the age range of 19 years and above. The minimum age of the student participants is 10 years, while the maximum age is 19 years and above. Thus, the average age of the student respondents is 15 years old. The reason for the observed age range is that the target populations are basic 10 to 12 school students who are usually within the age range of 10 to 19 years. This age bracket under the Universal Basic Education Commission UBEC system of education in Nigeria falls within the Basic 11 category.

 

Table 4: Distribution of participants according to age of teachers

 

 

Table 4 show that out of the total 19 teacher participants 9, or 47.4%, belonged to the youngest age bracket of 20 to 30 years of age; 4, or 21.1%, belonged to the age bracket of 31-40 years of age; 4, or 21.1%, belonged to the age bracket of 41-50 years of age while the remaining 2, or 10.5%, fall within the age range of 51 years and above.

 

Table 5: Distribution of participants according to teaching experience

 

 

Table 5 show that 15.8% of the teachers had less than a year teaching experience; 26.3% of the teachers had 1-5 years teaching experience; 26.3% of the teachers had 6-10 years teaching experience; 5.3% of the teachers had 11-15 years teaching experience while the remaining 26.3% had more than 15 years teaching experience.

 

Testing of Hypotheses

The hypotheses postulated for the study were tested and run on the statistical package; SPSS Version 20 at 0.05level of significance. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistic was used to analyze the four hypotheses.

Hypothesis One: There is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance.

 

Table 6: class size and students’ academic performance

 

 

From Table 6 presented above the ‘r’-calculated value (r-cal = 0.032) is lower than the critical value (r-crit = 0.195) given 260 degrees of freedom at 0.05 levels of significance. As a result, the null hypothesis was not rejected. It was concluded that, there is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance.

Hypothesis Two: There is no significant relationship between the students’ participation and their academics performance in secondary schools. 

 

Table 7: students’ participation and their academics performance in secondary schools

 

 

From Table 7 presented above the ‘r’-calculated value (r-cal = 0.644) is greater than the critical value (r-crit = 0.195) given 260 degree of freedom at 0.05 levels of significance. As a result, the null hypothesis was rejected. It was concluded that, there is significant relationship between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools. This implies that there is positive relationship between students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools.

Hypothesis Three: There is no significance relationship between students’ perception of class size and the academic performance.

 

Table 8: students’ perception of class size and the academic performance

 

 

From Table 8 presented above, the ‘r’-calculated value (r-cal = 0.032) is lower than the critical value (r-crit = 0.195) given 260 degree of freedom at 0.05 levels of significance. As a result, the null hypothesis was not rejected. It was concluded that, there is no significant relationship between students’ perception of class size and the academic performance.

Hypothesis Four: There is no significance relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance.

 

Table 9:  teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance

 

 

From Table 9 presented above the ‘r’-calculated value (r-cal = 0.422) is greater than the critical value (r-crit = 0.195) given 179 degree of freedom at 0.05 levels of significance. As a result, the null hypothesis was rejected. It was concluded that, there is a significant relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance. This implies that there is positive relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance.

Discussion of Findings

Hypothesis One

The first hypothesis which states that there is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance is hereby accepted while the alternate hypothesis which states that there is significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance was rejected. This finding is consistent with the finding of Afolabi (2002) who found no significant relationship among class size and students learning outcomes. This finding is also consistent with the finding of Konstantopoulos (2008) who found that it was higher ability students who benefited most from small classes and small classes did not reduce the achievement gap. One of the justifications of small classes is the hope that it will help those with most ground to make up academically receive more individual attention and help them concentrate. This finding is in contrast with the finding of Blatchford, Bassett, Goldstein, & Martin (2003) who reported that smaller classes have positive effects on pupil academic performance, if introduced immediately after school entry, that is, with the youngest children in school. However, it is now recognized by many - and not just critics of class size reductions - that in order to better understand the effects of class size, and help facilitate better classroom environments and effectiveness, we need to know more about the effects of what goes on in classrooms, that is, classroom ‘processes’ such as interactions between teachers and pupils and pupil behavior in order to note other factors responsibly. This finding is also in contrast with the finding of Adeyela (2000) who reported in her study that large class size is not conducive to serious academic work.

Hypothesis Two

The second hypothesis, which states that there is no significant relationship between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary school, is thereby rejected, while the alternate hypothesis which states that there is a significant relationship between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools was accepted. This implies that there is positive relationship between students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools. This finding corroborates the finding of Hyde & Ruth (2002) who asserted that there are various reasons, both speculative and empirically supported, that students fail to participate in class. One reason is class size, with students being more willing to participate. Large class size tends to hamper communication.  This finding is also consistent with the findings of Auster and MacRone (1994) who found that the courses where students reported the most participation were likely to be smaller (i.e., 20 or fewer students) than those where students reported the least participation (i.e., 60 or  more students). This finding is consistent with the findings of Weaver & Qi (2005) who argued that more lecturing occurs in larger classes, which, in turn, means fewer participatory opportunities for students. This finding is in agreement with the findings of Howard et al. (1996) who found class size to be more predictive of participation than sex. This finding is corroborated by the findings of Karp and Yoels (1976) who found that while the number of students who participate in any given classroom is often the same, courses which have more than 40 students have fewer overall interactions per class period.

Hypothesis Three

The third hypothesis, which states that there is no significant relationship between students’ perception of class size and their academic performance, was accepted while the alternate hypothesis, which states that there is significant relationship students’ perception of class size and the academic performance, was rejected. This finding is also consistent with the finding of Konstantopoulos (2008) who found that it was higher ability students who benefited most from small classes and small classes did not reduce the achievement gap. One of the justifications of small classes is the hope that it will help those with the most ground to make up academically as they will receive more individual attention and that will help them concentrate. This finding is also in contrast with the finding of Adeyela (2000) who reported in her study that large class size is not conducive for serious academic work.

Hypothesis Four

The fourth hypothesis, which states that there is no significant relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance, was rejected while the alternate hypothesis, which states that there is significant relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance, was accepted. This implies that there is a positive relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance. This finding is consistent with the study carried out by Anderson (2000) who argued that small classes encourage a more personalized and appropriate curriculum for individual pupils. Reducing class size to increase student achievement is an approach that has been tried, debated, and analyzed for several decades. The premise seems logical: with fewer students to teach, teachers can coax better performance from each of them. This finding is in agreement with the study carried out by Finn & Achilles (1999) who posited that smaller classes have positive effects on pupil academic performance, if introduced immediately after school entry, that is, with the youngest children in school. This finding is in agreement with the study carried out by Blatchford et al. (2003) who opined that the youngest pupils benefit most in terms of academic outcomes from small classes because it better helps children adjust to school and receive individual attention. But most evidence comes from primary aged pupils, and we know very little about the effects of class size on older school pupils, i.e., secondary age pupils aged 11 to 16 years. Still, less is known about how age differences in class size effects classroom processes, such as teacher and pupil interactions and classroom engagement.

Conclusion

The study examined the relationship between class size and students participation on the academic performance of senior secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos state. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population for this study comprised all the Senior Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos state. A random sampling technique was used in arriving at the selection of two hundred and seventy (270) students and thirty (30) teachers among the population of Senior Secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area in Lagos state which formed the sample of this study.

Specifically, students and teachers were randomly selected from six Senior Secondary schools in Mainland Local Government in Lagos State. Forty five (45) Senior Secondary school students and five (5) teachers were randomly sampled from each school. Two self- developed, structured and validated questionnaires (students’ questionnaire and teachers’ questionnaire), containing 15 items for the teachers’ questionnaire and 18 items for the students’ questionnaire, were used to collect information from the students and teachers after its validity and reliability were determined. Four hypotheses were tested in the study while Pearson Product Moment Correlation statistical tool was used for hypothesis testing at 0.05 levels of significance using (SPSS) testing program. The findings of the hypotheses are as follows:

 

1. There is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance.
2. There is significant difference between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools.
3. There is no significance relationship between students’ perception of class size and academic performance.
4. There is no significance relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance                

 

From the findings of the study, it was concluded that there is no significant relationship between class size and academic performance. There is significant difference between the students’ participation and their academic performance in secondary schools. There is no significance relationship between students’ perception of class size and the academic performance. There is no significance relationship between teachers’ perception of class size and the students’ academic performance

 

Recommendations

The following recommendations are put forward based on the findings of this study:

 

1. The popularity of smaller classes may make it politically difficult for policymakers to increase class size in order to sustain other investments in education, even in a time of recession. However, there is some evidence that teachers and the public in general may be open to modest increases in class size in order to allow for other investments.
2. More enlightenment and seminars should be organized by Ministry of Education and school owners on pupil interactions and pupil classroom engagement, classroom engagement and teacher to pupil interactions etc. in order to equip the teachers with skills to effectively manage their classes, even in a large class.
3. Also, adequate classrooms and other learning facilities should be provided for schools to improve the productivity level of teachers in order to improve the academic performance of students.
4. Finally, the teaching and learning environment must be made conducive enough for teacher and students to facilitate effective teaching for better academic performance.
5. The results of the study provide suggestive evidence that some changes to existing class-size policies might be politically feasible. In this context, state policymakers might consider amending class-size policies to provide local school heads more flexibility in how to distribute support for smaller classes. Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in developing classroom management skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across -the-board reductions. The government might even allow the Ministry of Education to apply for waivers that would allow them to spend the funds on purposes other than class-size reduction that they believe are more cost-effective.
6. Reducing class sizes will help to improve student outcomes, but ignores the impact that student load plays in how teachers structure their teaching. Reducing class sizes and the total number of students that a teacher is responsible for teaching in a term will lead to significant improvements in student performance. Administrative policies of hiring part time teachers to teach in order to minimize class sizes ignores the important role that total student responsibility plays in how the teacher actually teaches those classes. Subject attributes important to student learning and how much students get out of a subject suffer when class size and student loads increase. Policies designed to reduce class sizes in order to fare better in school rankings should be weighed against the impact these policies may have on students’ load and the equally important impact it plays in students’ performances.

Figure

Table

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