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ISSN : 2092-674X (Print)
ISSN : 2092-6758 (Online)
Asia-Pacific Collaborative education Journal Vol.13 No.1 pp.21-46

Current Trend of Philippines Educational Informatization through K-Fishbone Analysis: Based on APEC e-Learning Training Program

Yu, Ji Sang


The purpose of this article is to understand the status of education informatization in the Philippines based on trainee reports of the APEC e-Learning Training Program from 2007 to 2013. The entire number of the Philippines trainees was 60. 15 K-Fishbone analyses, project areas of interest, and purpose for participation in the training course were included in the scope of analysis. Specifically, this paper highlighted a trend in changing ICT policies and initiatives in the Philippines through K-Fishbone analysis. There were 3 major trend shifts in education informatization: the initial period (2007~2008) showed a Reversed Trapezoidal type, which then changed to Diamond type (2009~2011) and recently to Left Side Stingray type (2012~2013). Through the initial stage (2007~2008), education policy, an education integration system, motivation and HW, SW were all been equally important. During the interim period (2009~2011), supply of HW, SW and training received greater attention, followed by the demand for education policy and an education integration system in recent years (2012~2013). Finally, the analysis results of the K-Fishbone analysis proved that they fit well with the policies and initiatives implemented by the Philippines Department of Education.



The Korean Ministry of Education introduced the APEC e-Learning Training Program (AeLT) as the representative international educational cooperation project of Korea, which has been implemented by the Korean Ministry of Education and supervised by the Institute of APEC Collaborative Education since 2006 to reduce the knowledge and information gap within APEC. Up until 2014, a total of 60 Philippines trainees participated in AeLT which takes 4th place out of 12 participating economies in terms of number of the participants, followed by Indonesia, China and Thailand.  The achievements of the project is reported annually in the APEC meeting and evaluated as one of the best practices of Korea. However, no study has ever been conducted to comprehensively analyze the result reports of the Philippines trainees who participated in the AeLT program for the past 9 years, from 2006 to 2014. The previous study on general educational informatization types were formalized including the reversed trapezoidal type, which is the type applied to the Philippines (Lee. et al. 2011). However, the reference material of the reversed trapezoidal model referred merely to final reports of AeLT trainees of 2008 and 2009, only for two years. There arises, therefore, a need to reflect on more samples and responses to understand trend of e-Learning in the Philippines as a whole. What is more, a type is a reflection of the material and results of the contemporaries and the past. Thus, it is natural that it changes over time and as the economic situation progresses. Therefore, the following 3 research questions have been selected to compare the status of the Philippines with the results of AeLT trainees and predict future trends in e-Learning in the Philippines.


1. What are the changing trends in educational informatization types of AeLT trainees from the Philippines from 2007 to 2013?

2. What e-Learning policies and initiatives issued by the Philippines Department of Education do the results from the Philippines AeLT trainees highlight?

3. What future implications does the latest Philippines e-Learning trend suggest for the e-Learning projects targeting the Philippines?


Literature Review and Methodology

This Literature Review deals with the detailed information regarding the trainees recommended by the government of the Philippines. The major part of analysis is undertaken with reference to K-Fishbone Analysis. K-Fishbone Analysis is a crucial tool for problem diagnosis and drawing out solutions during the Problem Analysis and Brainstorming. The Fishbone Diagram used was that developed by Professor Kaoru Ishikawa, otherwise known as the Ishikawa diagram. Trainees participating from various departments and organizations joined discussions to draw out solutions for ICT and e-Learning related problems, utilizing K-Fishbone Analysis with the help of the experts (facilitators). The letter ‘K’ in the K-Fishbone Analysis refers to Korea. In addition to a number of K-Fishbone Analyses, among the results, was included the trainees’ organization, their personal data, areas of interest for implementing projects on ICT, purpose for attending the training, as well as big or small reference material. After going through the examination of the above mentioned material, this paper will examine the changing trends of educational informatization, including the examination of the 15 K-Fishbone Analyses, which represents the end results of the past 7 years of the Philippines trainees’ participation, from 2007 to 2013. After sorting out the changing trend chronologically the results were compared to policies and initiatives introduced by the Department of Education, the Philippines.

Yet, if a round of training does not include a trainee from the Philippines, the training round is exempted from consideration. If there is at least one Philippines’ trainee that participated in the training round, his/her results are included as the target for the research.

1. Literature review

Before proceeding with the analysis of the trainees’ K-Fishbone Analysis, there arises a need for an examination of the personal information of the trainees to better understand the situation of the Philippines. From 2007 to 2013, the number of the total trainees from the Philippines was 60, their average age was 41 (Male: 38, Female: 44). The youngest was 27 and the oldest was 61. As for the gender ratio, 22 male trainees participated in the training so far, whereas 38 female participants took part in the training. Compared to nearby economies like Viet Nam and Indonesia, the Philippines shows a relatively high ratio of woman participants. This is encouraged by APEC according to the Guide on Gender Criteria for APEC Project Proposals found in the official website of APEC. When we look at the education level of the trainees, there are 51 trainees who completed their master’s and doctorate program, this figure accounts for 85% of the total number of the trainees. The major interest areas include teaching and learning, ICT in education, e-Learning, educational informatization, education training, distance learning, and human resources development. Other than the above, there is blended learning, education utilizing ICT, international exchange activities, etc.

The majority of the trainees were from the Department of Education, which accounts for 73%, whereas 27% of the trainees were from higher education institutions including universities and affiliated organizations. During the early stages of the training, the number of the trainees from the higher education institutions and organizations outnumbered all others. However, in later years, the statistics show that education policy-makers or experts from the Department of Education were the mainstream. This certainly shows that the Philippines government not only puts emphasis on nurturing school administration oriented human resources but also focuses more on capacity building of the e-Learning policy-makers and the experts for their policy establishment (Reynato., et al. 2007).  

As was discussed, trainees of various backgrounds, age and organizations have been invited for the APEC e-Learning Training program to share their economy’s e-Learning status and learn the best practices of Korea’s e-Learning from 2006 onwards. As these trainees are persons in charge of designing and implementing policies on education informatization in their economy, (Lee., et al. 2011) it can be said that the final results of the training course reflect well on the education informatization status of the Philippines and its thrusts.

From the 5th (2007) to 28th (2013) AeLT, Philippines trainees took part in the training. So far, the Philippines trainees came up with 15 K-Fishbone Analyses. The targets of the research are the K-Fishbone Analyses of the 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 20th, 26th, 27th, 28th rounds of AeLT in which trainees from the Philippines participated. Out of the above mentioned, 2 Philippines teams took part in the 11th, 13th, and 26th and came up with two kinds of K-Fishbone Analysis. Problem definition and areas of interest for implementation of projects were analyzed on the basis of national report. National reports are to be submitted as a part of pre-training. Originally, online form submission during the online registration of AeLT was required; yet, more recently, a separate Powerpoint file is provided to the trainees for them to submit systematized reports. The report is included in the database of the economy.

As they go through the Pre-training and Collaborative Study stages of the onsite training, the priority is problem analysis and establishing methods for problem solving through Stakeholder Analysis.

Finally, as the trainees are practitioners of e-Learning policies and ICT, analysis for the areas of the trainees’ interest can provide information on the feasible projects which can possibly be implemented after going back to their economy. By means of checking the information of the projects, facilitators and experts of the collaborative study can have forethought on the project, allowing them to provide constructive feedback that helps the project.

2. Methodology

The Philippines has been participating in AeLT from 2007 onwards. There are 15 K-Fishbone Analyses that have been produced. The following shows how many analyses have been made on a yearly basis.


<Table 1. Number of K-Fishbone Analysis drawn out by participation from the Philippines>



As can be seen from table, the Philippines participated in the AeLT program from 2007 to 2013. In order to analyze results from each year, the following table will be used for sorting out information on a yearly basis. Four categories, including HW & SW, Motivation, Policy & Integration, and HRD Training, have been proven effective in previous studies analyzing the educational informatization status of Thailand, Russia, China, etc.


<Table 2. Analysis results of 2007 K-Fishbone>



After analyzing the results of each AeLT program year, the initiatives set out by the Philippines Department of Education will be examined on a yearly basis to see what the end results of the AeLT program highlight. The following table will be used for comparison and in-depth analysis.


<Table 3. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education>




The purpose of this study is first to examine the changing trends of educational informatization from 2007 to 2013 by analyzing results from the Philippines trainees who participated in the AeLT program. Second, is to see what initiatives or policies the K-Fishbone Analysis highlights. Lastly, the study aims to find the implications for future e-Learning projects targeting the Philippines.

1. Changing trend of educational informatization from 2007 to 2013

In 2007, as can be seen in [Table 4], several K-Fishbone Analyses were developed from 4 rounds (5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th) of the training. In 2007, as can be seen in [Table 8], several K-Fishbone Analyses were developed from 4 rounds (5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th) of the training. This can be summarized into the following table.


<Table 4. Analysis results of 2007 K-Fishbone>



As [Table 4] shows, it is a typical Trapezoidal type which describes the situation where HW & SW, motivation for using ICT, Policy & Integration, HRD training are all required as a whole.

In 2008, the Philippines took part in the training for 3 times. Out of 3, there are 5 K-Fishbone Analyses which can be found in the 11th round (twice), 13th round (twice), and the 14th round (once). On the basis of the 5 K-Fishbone Analyses, the following table summarizes the results.


<Table 5. Analysis results of 2008 K-Fishbone>



 In 2008, we found that Policy & Integration systems and HRD seem to be slightly more emphasized than in 2007. This is the interim type between the Trapezoidal type and the Reversed Trapezoidal type.

The following results are from 2009. The Philippines participated in one round of AeLT (15th round) and 1 K-Fishbone Analysis was completed. The following table displays the results of that analysis.


<Table 6. Analysis results of 2009 K-Fishbone>



As shown in [Table 6], 2009 saw an increased focus on HW & SW as well as HRD training.

The next is year 2010. The Philippines participated in the training once and 1 K-Fishbone Analysis resulted during the 20th round of AeLT. Based on that K-Fishbone Analysis, the following table was composed.



<Table 7. Analysis results of 2010 K-Fishbone>


As was the case of 2009, the scope of interest had certainly narrowed down to HW, SW as well as HRD training. Other than those mentioned, need for Motivation, Policy & Integration system were relatively low. From the 21st round to 25th round of AeLT, no participants from the Philippines took part in the program, which are exempted from consideration in the analysis.

2011 is the following year. From the Philippines, there were 2 rounds in which Philippines trainees participated. 2 K-Fishbone Analyses were deducted from two rounds of 26th of the AeLT program. The following table summarizes the results.



<Table 8. Analysis results of 2011 K-Fishbone>



As was the case of 2010, the year 2011 also highlighting HW, SW, and HRD training, as is illustrated in [Table 8]. Motivation and Policy & Integration account for a relatively low ratio.

Next is the year 2012. 2 rounds of the training were conducted (26th round) and the Philippines participated in both. 2 K-Fishbone Analyses were made. The following table summarizes what those analyses imply.



<Table 9. Analysis results of 2012 K-Fishbone>



As was indicated, 2012 trainees put much emphasis on Policy, Integration systems more than any other years.

The last year is 2013. The Philippines participated in the training once. In this training (28th), 1 K-Fishbone Analysis was drawn out. Based on this K-Fishbone Analysis, the following analysis was made.


<Table 10. Analysis results of 2013 K-Fishbone>



In 2013 as well, demand for Policy & Integration were very high like the previous year.  This demand is proven by the Left Side Stingray type.

By using the results of the AeLT programs in which Philippines trainees participated from 2007 to 2013, this paper examined the educational informatization trend. The following table shows the changing trend in type in chronological order.


<Table 11. Educationalinformatization type of the Philippines in a chronological order>



The above table shows that the type shifts from the Reversed Trapezoidal type to Diamond type to the Left Side Stingray type. In other words, in the beginning stage (2007~2008), HRD training, Policy & Integration system, Motivation, as well as HW & SW were all equally demanded. While during the middle period (2009~2011), HW, SW supply as well as training received highlights from the trainees (Diamond type); whereas during the recent years (2012~2013), the situation changed to focusing on education policy and education integration system (Left side stingray type).


2.  K-Fishbone Analysis and changing trend of e-Learning status of the Philippines

Next, an analysis of policies and initiatives introduced by the Philippines Department of Education from 2006 to 2014 will proceed. The method of analysis is basically searching key words including ICT, e-Learning, and Education. As a result of online searching, 71 policy orders and official letters directed to the metropolitan and provincial offices of education were found. The results were analysed on the basis of project title, implementation year, target, stakeholders, contents, goals, indicators, relevant legislation, and notifying department. This will allow us to see what produced by the trainees of the Philippines, namely: did K-Fishbone Analysis factor in to the orders and initiatives of the Department of Education?


<Figure 1. Homepage of Department of Education, the Philippines>



When the Philippines trainees took part in the 2007 training courses, the type for the educational informatization was the Reversed Trapezoidal type, where demand for HW & SW was 30%, 27% for Policy & Integration system, 20% for motivation and 23% for HRD training. During 2007 when the Philippines attended the AeLT program, there followed 3 educational policies and initiatives announced by the Philippines Department of Education.



<Table 12. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2007>



Among the initiatives of Department of Education that were implemented in 2007 were 2 policies on HRD training and 1 for a Policy & Integration system. One thing that deserves notice is that the Department of Education provided a training opportunity, inviting school practitioners, administrators and experts, etc. for enhancing their capabilities. ICT education training for school teachers was provided. Policy & Integration systems have been rearranged for administrators to be positioned more efficiently, reorganizing management regulations of each department. As well, ICT policy establishment training was provided for administrators and experts for their setting proactive policies. 

As for the training, which invited representative teachers of middle schools from around 50 schools, a company was invited to provide a 2-year-long training program that provided participants with lessons on online blog composition, its management, enhancing information search capabilities, PBL based ICT learning, etc. In addition to the lessons, the company covered all the expenses of the participants, including lodging cost and meals.

In the case of Strengthening the ICT governance of the DepED, which targeted government administrators, 5 major committees were created that would manage all the intertwined initiatives to prevent duplicate usages of the budget in the various departments and government institutions. The aimed was to efficiently use the limited amount the resources available. Delegation of exact roles and authorities, promoting leadership of the central group through reorganization, and supporting ICT programs are major activities of the initiative. By distinguishing the roles of each organization and allocating a chair, co-chair, and members, efficiency of the task highly increased.

Also, as for the Capacity Building Workshop, which was held to the benefit of administrators and experts for 4 days, training was provided on in-depth ICT policy making, designing policy and its planning. UNESCO and INNOTECH covered the all the expenses for the training. Especially, the workshop on explaining how to forge systematic cooperation with various stakeholders proceeded to assist policy planning.

The type composed by the Philippines trainees in 2008 also turned out to be the reversed trapezoidal type, which accounts for 23% for HW & SW, 28% for Policy & Integration system, 23% for Motivation, and finally 28% for HRD training. In 2008, the following 3 education policies and initiatives were announced.



<Table 13. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2008>



The 3 initiatives of the Department of Education are divided into 2 for HRD training and 1 for a Policy & Integration system, as was the case in 2007. It is important to note the introduction of ICT4E, which lasted for 5 years from 2008. ICT4E is the abbreviation for the Five Year Information and Communication Technology for Education Strategic Plan, which was composed from August 2007 to April, 2008, over a 9 month period. To facilitate ICT usage in the classroom environment, realistic priority tasks were set on the basis of departments, organizations, and agents. Three workshops were created for the election of priority tasks.  The tasks had high credibility as they passed various evaluation sessions, with research and investigation following afterwards (DepED, 2008). For the overall implementation of ICT4E, various projects began to include visions and directions of ICT4E. 

Specifically, in the case of the Creation of a Digital Content Development Coordinating Group, a coordinating body was established which adopted the vision of ICT4E which is “21st Century Education for Al Filipinos Anytime, Anywhere”. Among its roles includes the examination of the digital contents development goals, principals, and guideline to make sure they match with ICT4E of the Philippines, analyzing the existing material and multimedia that requires development and sophistication, as well as maintaining a good relationship with teachers and administrators, listening to their voices, referring to them when developing learning material. Importantly, the coordinating body reports the status of the project to the undersecretary of Department of Education at all times.

In the case of the Consultation Workshop, 640 people, including administrators, principals, teachers and parents, participated in the event. The workshop got its sponsorship from Intel, AusAID, and Queensland University of Technology. It proceeded in a way that provides consulting for each agent involving ICT4E. Thanks to clear vision sharing and goal setting, various policies set their directions toward ICT4E, providing a 

positive influence on strengthening the systematization of the organization and leadership of Department of Education (ICT4E, 2008).

While the Philippines trainees took part in the training in 2009, the educational informatization type changed from the Reversed Trapezoidal to Diamond Type. As much as 39% of the entire participants mentioned that they require HW & SW urgently. 17% of the trainees said that they require a Policy & Integration system, and 11% highlighted that they need to increase motivation for using ICT. In 2009, 11 education policies and initiatives were introduced, which can be found in the table below.



<Table 14. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2009>



The initiatives implemented in 2009 are composed of 4 HRD training relevant initiatives and 5 Policy & Integration system related initiatives, as well as 2 HW & SW. One of the key factors that can be considered in the 2009 initiatives is that Department of Education showed its concentrated effort for capacity building through HRD training and provided a Policy & Integration system for the systematization of education. Although there were 2 initiatives related to HRD training in both 2007 and 2008, it doubled in 2009. Similarly, there was one initiative on Policy & Integration systems was in 2007 and 2008 respectively; yet it increased to 5 in 2009.

Two out of five legislations on Policy & Integration system initiatives are amendments to existing policies, geared toward ICT4E, transforming their directions and goals. It is also important to note that this legislation includes policies on HW & SW, which includes providing basic standards of the facilities to forge common infrastructure, selecting the internet speed for all high schools, and specifying minimum standards of computers within the school, which all highlight the Department of Education’s concern for  the universality of infrastructure among schools.  

Trainee participants from the Philippines produced a Diamond type demand during the AeLT in 2010.  36% of the entire participants highlighted that they need HW & SW; and 43% of the trainees mentioned that they need HRD Training urgently. Only 7% of the trainees said that they need Policy & Integration systems, while 14% of the trainees emphasized that they need enhanced Motivation. During 2010, there were 16 education policies and initiatives which can be summarized in to the following table.



<Table 15. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2010>




Among the initiatives implemented in 2010, there are 5 initiatives relevant to HRD training, 8 for Policy & Integration systems, 3 for HW & SW. In 2010, as was the case of 2009, the Department of Education focused on the systematization of Policy & Integration systems, and capacity building through HRD training programs.

An interesting point related to HRD training is that it invited various kinds of participants including teachers and staff from the administrative offices of schools, teachers from technical and vocation schools, experts on a specific language, IT experts specialized in ICT, as well as students participating in ICT contests.  5 out of the 8 projects provide guidelines. This shows that the Department of Education is accessing strategically to optimize Policy & Integration systems at educational site in the Philippines.

2011’s demand type was also Diamond type. About 43% of the entire participants said that they need HW & SW urgently. 29% of the trainees highlighted that they need HRD training. Those who demanded Policy & Integration systems amount to 14% which is slightly increased compared to the previous year. Also, the demand for Motivation was again 14%.  In 2011, 9 education policies and initiatives were introduced.



<Table 16. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2011>




Among the initiatives implemented in 2011 by the Department of Education, 4 initiatives were for HRD training, 3 for Policy & Integration, and the other 2 for HW & SW. In 2011, as was the case in 2009 and 2010, capacity building through HRD training, providing Policy & Integration system, and its systematization were a big focus. 

A noticeable aspect of the thrust of these initiatives is LRMDS, which can be classified as a Policy & Integration system and the abbreviation of Learning Resources Management and Development System. It is one of the core goals of BESRA newly introduced in 2010. All teachers gathered digital education material that was optimized in their education environment and registered it online by October 2011 so that other teachers could have access to it as well. All education resources were to be uploaded to the LRMDS webpage and those teaching and learning materials were available in digital format wherever and whenever teachers needed them. The government sector encouraged schools to form TF teams inside the school and provided guidelines to specify regulations and roles of the teams.

Another interesting initiative allowed each unit school to apply for funds directly to the government, which is called DICP. DICP is the abbreviation of DepED Internet Connectivity Project where a school can apply for funds to pay internet subscription fees, securing internet connectivity at all times. A school receiving the funds needs to report monthly and quarterly how it was used, trying to follow the guidelines of the Internet Service Provider, Local Area Network (DICP, 2011).

In 2012, the demand of Philippines policy-makers was focused on Policy & Integration systems, which implies that the type changed to Left Side Stingray. Around 50% of all participants mentioned that they require Policy & Integration systems more than ever, 25% for HW & SW, 17% for HRD training and merely 8% for motivation. 

In 2012, 7 education policies and initiatives were introduced by the Philippines Department of Education, which can be summarized into the following table.



<Table 17. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2012>



There were 6 initiatives on HRD training, and 1 on Policy & Integration systems in 2012. As was the case in 2009 and 2010, capacity building through HRD training was one of the important demands; yet the need for Policy & Integration systems reduced unexpectedly.  

HRD training was even offered to the librarians of a school.  What is more, local ICT coordinators were arranged based on the regions and delegation of tasks of the central government so that the coordinators could check the ICT status of each school within their regions.

The demand type of the 2013 Philippines participants was Left Side Stingray type. As was the case in 2012, 50% of all participants emphasized that they need Policy & Integration systems.  20% pointed out the importance of HW & SW and HRD training, and 10% highlighted Motivation.

In 2013, 2 education policies and initiatives were developed, which can be sorted out as the following.



<Table 18. Initiatives set out by the Department of Education in 2013>



In 2013, there were 3 initiatives, all of which are related to HRD training. The following table summarized the classification status from 2007 to 2013.



<Table 19. Classification status of Department of Education Initiatives from 2007 to 2013>



Much of the focus of the Philippines was put on HRD training and Policy & Integration systems from 2007 to 2008. These directions might have satisfied the demands of the AeLT trainees from the Philippines. Unfortunately, however, there have been no initiatives for HW & SW supply or infrastructure. In fact, as the East Asian economy faltered as a result of 2008 economic crisis in America, the Philippines central government reduced its expenditure, increasing fears of national competitiveness and the poverty rate (Hong, ChangSeok, 2008).  The difficult economic situation can be seen in the contents of HRD training that was held during that time. Much of the training was provided thanks to the support from companies like INNOTECH and international organizations including UNESCO, etc. Also, the rearrangement of organizations to prevent any initiative receiving duplicate budget allotments implies that there has been lack of efficiently in providing budget and infrastructure.  

From 2009 to 2011, the Philippines Department of Education put emphasis on HRD training, Policy & Integration and HW & SW. Their directions were in line with the demands of AeLT trainees of that time. According to a report from the Korea Trade Investment Promotion Agency (KOTRA), the economic growth rate of the Philippines in 2009 was 1.1%, increasing to 3.7% in 2011 (Kim, 2011). Despite a dip in support in 2007~2008, it increased support for HW & SW during 2009~2011. Specifically, securing internet connectivity within either a school or a region and specifying the minimum speed of the internet shows the Department of Education of the Philippines’ effort to universalize standards within the economy. What is meaningful though is the number of the initiatives that the Philippines implemented from 2009 to 2011 on ICT and e-Learning, reaching 36 in number, which accounts for 70% of all projects that are analyzed in this paper from 2007 to 2013. This single fact shows that the Philippines Department of Education aggressively tried its best to provide HRD training, Policy & Integration systems, as well as providing infrastructure.

Yet, to this day the AeLT trainees’ demand for Policy & Integration systems has not been met. From the 10 initiatives implemented from 2012 to 2013, only 10% of the initiatives is related to Policy & Integration systems. The other 90% is related to HRD training. However, the demand for Policy & Integration systems increased for the same period. Half of all demand is for Policy & Integration systems, followed by Infrastructure, which is 22%. Why did the trainees demand Policy & Integration system during that time?

We may think of the stark difference of the Philippines’ education system both before and after 2012. In fact, the Philippines was one of the few economies that kept the 10 year regular year curriculum from kindergarten to high school before 2012. After experiencing problems caused by a relatively short education curriculum compared to other economies, the curriculum year was changed to 12 years under the law enforcement of the Philippines Department of Education. Yet, the problem arises on how to effectively reduce the knowledge gap between the students who experienced the 10 year curriculum system (6 years of primary and 4 years of high school) and those who will experience 12 year system. 

Thus, the Department of Education introduced a K to 12 system, which means that from kindergarten to university, it is compulsory to have 12 years of education. We may assume that as they went through changes in the school curriculum system, which took a number of years, a lot of modifications and confusion might have occurred. For these reasons, trainees might have requested a systematic system and detailed guidelines. In fact, the Assistant Director of Education Curriculum Development of the Department of Education who participated in AeLT said “It is a positive sign for Philippines education to introduce a K to 12 system, but administrative support and procedures to effectively implement the system is must”. Also, an IT specialist who participated in the other training put it this way, “In order for a K to 12 system to be settled and reduce the confusion of the parents and students, an online management as well as administrative integration system should be equipped in advance.” As the system was newly introduced then, it may be possible that the trainees did not have enough knowledge or expertise on the K to 12 system so put emphasis on Policy and Integration systems.


3. Future e-Learning status of the Philippines and implications

From the research results, the following 4 implications can be drawn out. Firstly, the Philippines Department of Education should consider providing education through community activities when selecting ICT and e-Learning policy directions.  

This can be found in the 18 training results of the AeLT trainees for the past 3 years (2011-2013), which contain areas of project interest that the trainees are interested in implementing in the near future. The following table sorts out the afore- mentioned material.


<Table 20. Projects that the trainees would like to implement from 2011 to 2013 (Unit: %)>



Although basic education and comprehensive education decline, the remaining areas of interest, including higher education, education through community activities, distance learning and training in education, are all increasing.

As discussed earlier, the educational informatization types from 2011 to 2013 shifted from Diamond to Left Side Stingray type gradually. Thus, as can be seen from [Table 20], it would be proper to proceed with educational initiatives through community activities, which takes first position in ranking among the projects that the Philippines trainees would like to implement. The trainees learned about case studies from Korea on how local boards of education initiated community based activities as well as education development. For example, the Saemaeul movement (New town movement) was implemented to improve national awareness for educational development, the inviting of overseas public officials for ICT training, educational broadcasting services from the local education board, etc. are briefed during the lectures and visits to various institutes. What is more, they experience learning about ALCoB, which is the abbreviation of APEC Learning Community Builders. As they learn its spirit and activities, they become an ALCoB member and act as one of the experts for participating in future educational cooperation activities. Every year, Alumni day is designated for the trainees of an economy to go through evaluation and reflection on how each trainee applied lessons gained during his visit to Korea for training.

Therefore, from the conclusion of the results, there is a need for the Department of Education to seriously consider community driven projects. The reports composed by the Philippines trainees repeatedly mentioned collaborative initiatives and projects involving students, parents, higher education institutions, private institutions, local community centers and local government agencies. This can also be found in the daily reflection notes that the trainees composed highlighting key steps to take as in accordance with the best practices of Korea.  

The second implication point can be found in the final reports of the 60 trainees, specifically in the purpose for their participation in AeLT training. For ICT training targeting the Philippines, the contents need to focus on practically assisting trainees in making teaching and learning materials on e-Learning. The following [Table 21] is a summary of reasons for participating in AeLT.



<Table 21. Purpose of the Philippines’ participation in AeLT>



It would seem that the trainees from the Philippines understand very well the purpose of the APEC e-Learning Training program, judging from their responses. The foremost reason is to study the best practices of Korea and to find ways to apply those lessons in their situation (35%) and to introduce projects after analyzing their conditions (18%). For these purposes, AeLT contributes to assisting them in achieving their selected goals. However, in addition to understanding the best practices and helping to them introduce their own projects, the experts or facilitators of the training needs to help them come up with effective e-Learning teaching and learning material (15%), which can not be neglected. When updating this training curriculum or possibly to implement programs specifically designed for the Philippines, the facilitator needs to consider how much practical help is provided to the practitioners, not just focusing on sharing good examples, but providing solutions to the problems. 

The third implication is that the Philippines is experiencing a shift of stage from that of developing economy to developed economy. That can be found in the demand status. Once, the Philippines was mainly targeting infrastructure (HW, SW). Yet, the demand shifted from that to policy integration, system formation, forming management systems and their operation. Through K-Fishbone Analysis of AeLT, various viewpoints on Infrastructure, Motivation, Policy & Integration, and HRD training were suggested to diagnose problems. To solve a lack of infrastructure, the experts did not simply suggest investing more budget to build more buildings and enhance internet speed. Rather, they focused on the existing infrastructure, expansion plans, and exact implementation, highlighting once more the setting of detailed plans and implementation procedures. As was highlighted in Lee HyunAh et al. (2011), this fact shows that the education informatization projects of the Philippines have been progressing from developing economy status in APEC. 

Finally, the fourth implication is that as the economy of the Philippines grows, the Left Side Stingray type will be kept for some time, not returning to the Reversed Trapezoidal type. The Reversed Trapezoidal type is a representative type of the developing economies of APEC, which requires HRD training, Policy Integration, Motivation and Infrastructure, all at the same time. As was concluded in the previous study by Lee HyunAh, et al. (2011), the Republic of Sakha of Russia and Malaysia are relatively better off economies than East Asian economies in general, which is represented as Left Side Stingray type. The Philippines is also expected to become Left Side Stingray type for some time, similar to that of Sakha and Malaysia.

Conclusion and Recommendation

1. Conclusion

This study aims to examine the transition of the educational informatization model from 2007 to 2013 through the end results of the Philippines trainees who participated in the APEC e-Learning Training program. This paper examined what specific initiatives and policies are highlighted referring to the end results of the program. Finally, this paper introduced 4 implication points to understand the changing trend of the Philippines e-Learning, especially when implementing e-Learning training projects targeting the Philippines. 

Most of the aid relevant to educational informatization is included in the ‘education with no specification of level’. What is meant by ‘education with no specification of level’ is aid with no information on education level including the following categories of aid. First, it is aid for the administration or management systems of the government on policy and designing a program in education. Second, it is aid for the capacity building of an institution, including the development of curriculum and learning material required for school operation, supplementary services for education, learning materials, facilities, school buildings, as well as aid for language education, etc. Third is education for teachers by providing seminars and special lectures, etc. Finally, research on the quality and effectiveness of education aid as well as the systematic evaluation of the aid is included. (Jeong, 2009).

In this respect, AeLT training under the Korean Ministry of Education was implemented since 2006. And it not only offers consulting on policy directions of government of developing economies, supporting their educational informatization, but also assisting in the capacity building of the trainees. It is actively positioning itself as the representative ODA project initiated by the Korean government. From this study, the following major conclusions have been made.

First, the educational informatization type from 2007 to 2013 moved from the Reversed Trapezoidal type (2007~2008) to Diamond type (2009~2011), and toward Left Side Stingray type (2012~2013). In the initial stage (2007~2008), HRD training, Education policy and Education integration system, Motivation, and HW, SW are all equally important. During the interim (2009~2011) period, supply of HW, SW and training received greater attention, followed by the recent years (2012~2013) demanding Education policy and an Education integration system.

Second, it can be said that the initiatives and e-Learning policies are reflected well in the end results of the trainees of the AeLT from the Philippines. During the initial stage (2007~2008), there has been no initiatives or polices on supporting infrastructure. Yet, this can be supplemented by the support from external organizations including companies and international organizations through public-private partnership. During the interim period (2009~2011), support on infrastructure increased largely and even provided extensive support, compared to the initial stage. This implies that an important scaffold has been arranged for demand on Policy and Integrated systems during the recent years (2012~2013).

Third, this paper examined the changing trend and its implications for e-Learning in the Philippines. At present, there is an active war and anti-corruption movement under the new political regime. As the economic conditions of the Philippines progress, it is expected that the type will be shifting to the Left Side Stingray type, considering the previous cases of other economies.


2. Recommendation

This study makes the following suggestions for follow up studies in the future. First, this study solely referred to the K-Fishbone Analysis results composed by the trainees from the Philippines. Conducting surveys and asking the opinions of facilitators of the Collaborative Study, participating entrepreneurs, and lecturers from 2007 to 2013, in order to add those opinions to the study, will increase the credibility of the research. Second, similar types of studies, besides analysis on K-Fishbone Analysis, can be considered. As there are various problem analysis tools including lotus blossom, stakeholders, and K-Onion Ring analysis, etc. that have been used during the Collaborative Study session of AeLT, more similar types of analysis will contribute to an in-depth study of the Philippines e-Learning status and its understanding.




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