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ISSN : 2092-674X (Print)
ISSN : 2092-6758 (Online)
Asia-Pacific Collaborative education Journal Vol.9 No.2 pp.43-67
DOI :

Developing Counterbalanced Based Multimedia On Peripheral Verb Phrases in Teaching Grammar to University Students

Sumardiono
Sumardiono works as lecturer of Grammar and IT for Teaching at English Education Department at STKIP PGRI Blitar.
Received Date: April, 30, 2013, Revision received Date: September, 30, 2013, Accepted Date: October, 20, 2013

Abstract

The lack of media in teaching grammar touniversity students and the problems faced by studentsin learning grammar motivates the researcher to doresearch and development in developing the media.The media which is concerned with peripheral verbphrases (participial phrases, gerund phrases, andinfinitive phrases) are designed by considering theimportance of keeping both form (structures ofperipheral verb phrases) and content (the context inthe sentences). In this case, the researcherusesacounterbalanced approach as the base to developthe media into counterbalanced based multimedia onperipheral verb phrases. The aim of this study focuseson the way to design counterbalanced basedmultimedia (simulation, drill, and evaluation) onperipheral verb phrases in teaching grammar validly,practically, and effectively. By adapting the Borg andGall model of development, the researcher analyzedthe concepts of related theories and needs to create themedia based on the counterbalanced approach. Expertappraisals are needed to validate the media. Indeveloping it, the researcher tested the media in twosessions of field tests. They covered preliminary fieldtest and main field test. The investigation of both testsshowed that the media are valid, practical, andeffective to use in teaching grammar. In the last stepthe researcher disseminated the products to thegrammar lecturers to use the media in their teaching.However, a further level of discussion of grammartopics is required to further develop a greater varietyof teaching materials. To sum up, the researcherdemonstrated that counterbalanced based multimediacan be validly, practically, and effectively designed toteach grammar.

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Introduction

 In English education departments of undergraduate programs, grammar is an essential subject in university. It has been shown that grammar has different stages of competence. They are arranged as Grammar 1 to beginners, Grammar 2 to pre-intermediate students, Grammar 3 to intermediate students, Grammar 4 to upper-intermediate, and Grammar 5 to advanced students in learning the forms of structures of English. Based on Thornbury’s (1999) definition, that grammar is partly the study of what forms are possible, practically, the variety of structures of sentences taught at the university level are greater. Students are taught both incorrect forms and correct forms to know and understand the various contexts of sentence structures.

 In understanding the various forms of English grammar students did have various difficulties. The first difficulty was shown by a two-year observation of students’ grammar mastery shown by their scores at STKIP PGRI Blitar where the researcher worked from 2011 to 2013. Grammar 4, a subject in the second semester, was observed for two periods. The result showed three different achievements in three topics in Grammar 4 over two years with 9 classes consisting of 236 students. The first topic of adjective clauses had an average score of 88.90 on a scale 0-100. The second topic with an average score of 80.26 tested noun clauses. The third topic of peripheral verb phrases had an average score of 60.20 which is lower than the two previous topics. The researcher concluded that the students were required to improve their grammar mastery especially in peripheral phrases.

 The second difficulty arose when the researcher conducted an interview concerned with the students’ learning interest and motivation. From ten questions given to the students, the result was directed into the learning process toward their interest and motivation. The interview conducted in a month (December 2012) showed that 75.08% of students found that the method of lecturing activity made them bored as passive learners. Further, students’ responses showed that a range of learning methods is necessary to occur in order for them to learn grammar more effectively. However, in case of interest, the students recognized that their interest in grammar was high showing 78.89% students were interested in learning grammar. Based on the interview results in the preliminary study conducted over two years, the researcher found that the students’ learning activity needed to have variety to make them interested in all the grammar topic sessions.

 The researcher also conducted an observation related to the teaching model used for five years by observing the lecturer’s materials and annual reports to see the third difficulty from the side of the teaching model. Regarding the teaching of grammar as the basis of linguistic views and academic tests like TOEFL, the lecturers of grammar use bookoriented teaching. Consequently, the lecturer needs to supplement the students with many books of grammar both theoretical and practical books. The system of evaluation toward the topics discussed also used paper-based tests following the materials taught to the students. From this evidence, the researcher summed up that the teaching and learning process in Grammar 4 uses class management, time management, lecturing technique, material supplement, determination of the evaluation, and book-oriented teaching. Fenstermacher and Soltis (2004) categorize this approach as an executive approach with the above mentioned characteristics. Moreover, Cullen (2008) showed in his research that book-oriented teaching implemented for five years at STKIP PGRI Blitar, as the sample university, mostly made the students bored to read and do the exercises in grammar books. So, the teaching model implemented also should have variety to make the teaching processes more interesting and challenging.

 Reviewing the curriculum as the fourth difficulty, the researcher examined the learning activities and views of Grammar 4. The learning activities stated in the syllabi description include lectures, discussion, and exercises. Meanwhile, the learning views are concerned with structure. Considering the technological development, the researcher is interested in including the learning activities with the technological lecture, discussion, and exercises. Since the advanced grammar focuses on grammar both in written language and oral language, the lecturer supposes that it is necessary to enhance the complete materials provided by Frank (1972a) as the textbook used in Grammar 4 for 5 years into an understandable and accessible media of learning.

 Related to the view of the importance of forms and content, topics in Grammar 4, peripheral verb phrases, namely participial phrases, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases also emphasize those two things because the peripheral verb phrases proposed in this subject mainly discussing their forms and their contents (sentential contents). Participial phrases, according to Frank (1972b), are the shortenedconstructions deriving from adjective and adverbial clauses using participle forms. Various forms of participles are supposed to understand by analyzing the original forms which are, in this case, the content of the complete clauses. Frank (1972b) also defines gerund phrases as peripheral verb phrases derived from verb forms functioned as noun or modifiers in the sentence structures. Again, she describes in the same book infinitive phrases as ‘to infinitive’ forms of peripheral verb phrases functioning as noun, adjective, and adverb which can act in sentential structures.

 To make the materials of peripheral verb phrases interesting and easy to learn to the students, the researcher proposes to develop multimedia in teaching the topic. This is based on the latest issue of technological development and the students’ interest in technology (interview result of 85.12% students interested in technological learning). Darmawan (2012) noted that the development of computer and technology can support education in university through euniversity (electronic university) design so that the university is able to give better service based technology. The researcher himself has proven this in his recent research reports in trying to develop more variety in teaching. Sumardiono (2012a) found that the use of computer based teaching is mostly interesting to the students virtually and Sumardiono (2012b) also found that the use of Flow Chart CAI (Computer Aided Instruction) and Instructional Strategy were an effective teaching concept. In this case, the multimedia as the proposed learning media should cover the needs of teaching grammar; including explanation, tasks, and evaluation. So, the writer intends to use macromedia flash in developing a simulation program as the explanation part of teaching grammar, a modeldrill program for tasks and modelling, and an evaluation program to evaluate the students’ mastery on participial phrases. Related to the emphasis on both forms and content, the multimedia is designed to attract the students to learn independently so that what is directed in the teaching materials can be learnt individually.

 Many colleges in Indonesia have started to use computers in the teaching process. A program like macromedia flash is designed so that the students can acquire both language and technology. The class is facilitated with new media, such as computer, LCD, player, and wide screen. This is in line with Brown (2007) stating seven principles of classroom technology. They include; 1) using technology to support the pedagogical goals and curriculum, 2) evaluating the appropriateness of software to the purpose, 3) creating classroom environment affirmed by the students, 4) making the technological accessible to all learners, 5) using technology more effectively than traditional teaching, 6) using technology efficiently, and 7) having a backup plan in case of technological failure. Those principles are considered for technological teaching in order to make effective and efficient technology use in the classroom.

 The necessity of teaching both grammatical form and content, through technology, and the students’ difficulties created the idea of promoting a counterbalanced approach as the basis of developing multimedia in teaching peripheral verb phrases. The counterbalance hypothesis is predicated on Skehan’s (1998) argument for pushing learners who areeither form-oriented or meaning-oriented in the opposite direction in order tostrike a balance between the two orientations:

 In the case of analytic learners, the intention is to build in a greater concernfor fluency and the capacity to express meanings in real time without becomingexcessively concerned with a focus on form. . . . In the case of memoryorientedlearners, the intention is to set limits to the natural tendency toprioritize communicative outcome above all else. (pp.171-172)

 Lyster (2007) extends Skehan’s argument beyond the level of individuallearners to account for groups of learners whose learning interests and expectationshave been shaped to a large extent by the overall communicative orientationof their classroom setting. He emphasizes using both form-oriented learning and content-oriented learning in a so called ‘counterbalanced approach’. This is in line with what the researcher has explained above about implementing form and content (theme or content of sentence) in learning peripheral verb phrases using multimedia.

 Therefore, the researcher is interested in developing themultimedia of macromedia to give variety to a five-year book oriented grammar based syllabi (lecture, discussion, and exercises are adapted into macromedia models into simulation, drill model, and evaluation). Since theabove classroom problems faced by the students are reviewed, it is essential to develop educational products into a form of multimedia (simulation and drill and practice) to help solve the students’ difficulties mentioned above. In addition, the development of multimedia is based on the principles of a counterbalanced approach which emphasized both form and content. The developed media are further expected to improve students’ grammar mastery especially in peripheral verb phrases. This article reports the result of the research and development.

 This study is formulated into a general statement of a problem of: ‘How are counterbalanced based multimedia developed to teach peripheral verb phrases to university students?’ the research questions are based on the three types of multimedia specifically required in teaching grammar. They are formulated as follows: 1) How is a counterbalanced based simulation multimedia developed to teach peripheral verb phrases to university students in order to be valid, practical, and effective? 2) How is a counterbalanced based drill model multimedia developed to teach peripheral verb phrases to university students in order to be valid, practical, and effective?, and 3) How is counterbalanced based evaluation multimedia developed to teach peripheral verb phrases to university students in order to be valid, practical, and effective?

 This study functions to develop counterbalanced based multimedia (simulation, drill, and evaluation) to teach peripheral verb phrases to the university students. The specification of the product in this study is based on the need to teach grammar; namely in the case of explaining the materials, exercising the students, and evaluating the students’ grammar mastery in peripheral verb phrases. As the result, the specific products are in the form of simulation media to explain the peripheral verb phrases, drill-model media to task the students, and evaluation media to evaluate the students’ grammar mastery on peripheral verb phrases.

 The products are in the form of application (learning media) or learning CD (Compact Disk) which has the characteristics in accordance with the principles ofa counterbalanced approach emphasizing both the forms and content in learning peripheral verb phrases. To be more specific, the kinds of media application are in form of macromedia flash in creating the learning media.

 The products can be operated individually since the products consist of instructions and directions so that the students can learn the peripheral verb phrases independently. To be maximal, the teacher’s assistance is needed when students find something they consider to be difficult both theoretically and practically. The products can be finally generated as the learning multimedia can be used by lecturers of English grammar for discussing peripheral verb phrases, instructors of TOEFL in giving materials, and drilling the examinees before doing the real TOEFL, and students of university having difficulty understanding and distinguishing the use of the gerund phrases, participial phrases, and infinitive phrases.

 Media which are part of learning materials in teaching and the learning process have an important role to facilitate both students and lecturers concerned with the materials discussed in the classroom. This research and development use multimedia (audio, visual, and textual types) which is covered in computer software, namely macromedia flash. The scope of multimedia developed is based on the principles of the counterbalanced approach known as counterbalanced based multimedia. The scope of materials conveyed in the multimedia includes peripheral verb phrases (gerund phrase, participial phrase, and infinitive phrase).

 The scope of the study is limited to the use of the application of macromedia flash to help the students’ master the grammar of peripheral verb phrases, namely, participial phrases, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases in form of three developed models. They include simulation, drillmodel, and evaluation. The scope of peripheral verb phrases is in their use, positions, functions, and forms. The procedures of developmental method in this study are adapted from an R&D model developed by Borg & Gall (1983). The implementation of the developmental procedures follows their procedures with the end-step, preliminary dissemination. In case of product implementation, it cannot be implemented fully since it is restricted by the authority and wisdom of the university.

Media in the Paradigm of Computer Based Learning and E-Learning

 The 21st century is led by a prerequisite to use technology and information as the basis of work, including education. Rusman (2012) states that through the use of computer technology; we can improve the quality of human resources and human knowledge, namely by opening the mind toward wider access to knowledge and qualified education management. In line with what Rusman proposes, Munir (2009) emphasizes the development of informational technology and communication influencing the development of learning media, namely computer based media. Munir (2010) adds that educational technology and communication have important roles where computers become an integral part of the development. For the development, Uno and Lamatenggo (2010) show the effectiveness of the use of informational technology which makes a good contribution to the tasks making them more systematic and better. From the conditions proposed by some experts of informational technology, I draw a conclusion that recent media are supposed to be based on the computer, since the computer can manage information and communication widely, and more efficiently and effectively to help improve work in many areas.

 Related to the computer based learning explained above, Darmawan (2012) mentions that creating interactive learning can be done using computer based software. This is in line with this study that the uses computer software macromedia flash for interactive learning. The way in packaging this software can vary like in traditional teaching methods (as supplement teaching media), in computer assisted learning (as a model of interactive media), and through the web (as e-learning media). Rusman (2012) adds, as electronic learning media, computer software should fulfil the learning principles based on the computer, including; a) orientation to the learning objectives, b) orientation to individual learning, c) orientation to independent learning, and d) orientation to mastery learning. The media produced in this study is reflected in how the software functions in the classroom (Darmawan, 2012) and the learning principles of e-learning based computing (Rusman, 2012) to be an effective, relevant, efficient, useful, and contextual media for learning.

The Roles of Media in Lifelong Learning

 Discussing the roles of media as part of students’ lifelong learning should be oriented to individual learning. It means the interaction in training of the teacher and individual learning is closely related to lifelong learning. Fischer (1999a) states that learning can no longer be dichotomized into a place and time to acquire knowledge (school) anda place and time to apply knowledge (the workplace). He adds that today’s citizens are flooded with moreinformation than they can handle, and tomorrow’s workers will need to know far more than anyindividual can retain. The result of this research and development goes along with what Fischer states. What the media can produce means students can learn material wherever and whenever they need. In other words, students can also learn individually at home and outside of learning hours.

 Bordia (in Medel, 2002) finds that China, India, Pakistan, Iran, the whole Arab world, and he is also sure Africa and other countries, are full of old stories from who people have learned important things, from birds, from animals, from trees and from insects. According to him, one very important observation is that to have lifelong learning the learners need tohave a system of lifelong education, and only when there are opportunities for systematic learning can the idea of lifelong learning can be realized. This is closely related to what is intended to be developed in this study. Providing systematic learning media to learn grammar is assumed to be important in providing informational materials to the students.

 Concerned with the key of lifelong learning, Smidt & Sursock (2011) quote from Community Programs and the European Year of Lifelong Learning the key messages of comprehensive and coherent lifelong learning. They should aim to; a) guarantee universal and continuing access to learning for gaining and renewing the skills needed for sustained participation in the knowledge society; b) visibly raise levels of investment in human resources in order to place priority on Europe’s most important asset – its people; c) develop effective teaching and learning methods and contexts for the continuum of lifelong and life wide learning; d) significantly improve the ways in which learning participation and outcomes are understood and appreciated, particularly non-formal and informal learning; e) ensure that everyone can easily access good quality information and advice about learning opportunities throughout Europe and throughout their lives; f) provide lifelong learning opportunities as close to learners as possible, in their own communities and supported through ICT-based facilities wherever appropriate.

 Fischer (1999b) underlines the characteristics of this developed product as referred to lifelong learning. He explains the conceptual framework outline in Table 2 provides the foundation to characterize adifferentiation between school (university) and lifelong learning.

Table 1. Realization of Lifelong Aims in the Developed Product

Table 2. Comparison of Different Conceptualizationsof University Training and Lifelong Learning

 Table 2 shows that the role of counterbalanced based multimedia developed in this study has the similar seven charactristics described as university training conceptualized as school learning. This step is one-more step to reach lifelong learning which can be used as model to workplace learning since such the media developed can be used individually. To be clear, in this study, the role of the mediaisas amotor to the next step of lifelong learning.

 In this study, the form of software used to develop is macromedia flash. Macromedia flash, further, is combined with the theory of composing computer program as needed in this study. The programs are known as a simulation model, drill model, and evaluation (practice) model. Darmawan (2012) states that this model was firstly introduced in the 1960s at the beginning of computer development and was useful as a learning model, especially a programmed-learning model. Rusman (2012) defines the simulation model as a CBI (Computer Based Instruction) displaying learning materials composed of learning simulation in the form of animation explaining certain content which are interesting. Sridadi (in Rusman, 2012) adds that simulation is computer software functioning to imitate the real system. From this, it can be inferred that the function of simulation is to train behavior, and as a game. Related to the form, Alessi and Trollip (1985) divide the simulation model into four categories: a physical simulation model, situational simulation model, procedural simulation model, and process simulation model. This study uses a process model to explain the grammatical materials taught using this model. Figure 1 shows the sample of simulation model as modelled by Sumardiono (2012b)

Figure 1. Flow Chart of Simulation Model

 Meanwhile, the drill model in CAI is basically one of learning media functioning to give more concrete learning experiences through imitative creation which is similar to the real situation. In this model, it provides drills to repeat and sharpen the students’ knowledge about the material discussed in the meeting requiring this model. The concept of drills is as quoted below:

 “Drills, drills, or drill and practice programs, help learners refine or enhance performance. They normally complement classroom instruction by reinforcing skills already learned. In such programs, the usual job of the computer is repetitive and follows a distinct pattern. (Geisert and Futrell, 1990: 85)

 The concept of drill above explains that the drill is to reinforce the students’ skills and the computer software helps to repeat the students’ understanding through different ways of learning. Geisert and Futrell (1990) also explain the routine is commonly quite simple; it covers; a) the learner is presented with a question or problem that corresponds to the target level of performance, b) the learner responds by typing in the answer, c) the computer evaluates the answer and provides feedback on its accuracy, d) and if the answer is correct, the learner is presented with another question or problem, if the answer is not accurate, the learner is afforded the opportunity to try again. This view is supported by Steinberg’s statement as quoted below:

 Drills work well in a self-placed educational system, giving the opportunity to fast learners to advance rapidly in the hierarchical levels of performance. Assessment can be based on a succession of responses rather than on a single response. The mastery criterion might be fixed number of successive correct answers, say three in a row, or it might be a certain percentage correct in the last set of ten exercises (Steinberg, 1991: 165)

 From those distinct steps of programming drill model in CAI, generally, it can be summed up that the steps include; a) the problem or the question is given to the certain level from the students’ performance, b) the students do the drills, c) the program records the students’ performance, evaluates, and gives the feedback, d) the program provides remediation towards the correct and incorrect answers.

Counterbalanced Approach

 The history of counterbalanced approach coming from immersion above draws a different view of teaching grammar. In an immersion program, different kinds of subject are taught using English so that both content and language forms arewell-acquired. In the tradition of teaching grammar in university level, grammar is taught to make the students understand the grammatical English based on a linguistic side, structural side, and applied side. In this case, teaching grammar focuses on forms rather than content. To be balanced in acquiring what grammar is and what is discussed in grammar, the researcher assumes the phenomenon of a counterbalanced approach which can be applied in the situation of a grammar paradigm.

 In other classroom programs, a counterbalanced approach has developed in many schools to balance both form and content. Sheen (2004) states in his research findings that acounterbalanced approach is also applicable. He showed that teaching EFL in Korea to 29-36 year olds was effective regarding the balanced of form – oriented and content – oriented teaching. Yang (2009) also demonstrated that corrective feedback in implementing a counterbalanced approach toward students aged 12- 13 in China worked. In short, a counterbalanced approach is effective in EFL learning so that it is a good idea to implement the principles of his approach in multimedia to acquire the same success as well.

 Lyster (2007) defined the counterbalanced approach as an approach of language learning which highlights both content based learning and form based learning. Counterbalanced instruction promotes transfer-appropriate learning through activities that differ from a classroom’s usual instructional routine. Counterbalanced instruction thus extends the scope of form-focused instruction by encompassing instructional practices that range from form-focused at one end of the grammar forms to content-based interventions at the other. Counterbalanced instruction is designed to encourage students to “engage with language” regardless of whether its orientation is more form-focused or more content-based. It is not only form-focused activities that incite learners to engage with language; content-based activities can also do so if they integrate or complement form-focused activities so that language permeates instructional activities across the curriculum. Students in content-based classrooms need to do so much more than briefly and fortuitously “focus on form” as they (paradoxically) “negotiate for meaning” and exchange information with a “more competent interlocutor” (Long 1996: 451). More importantly, they need to engage with language through content-based instructional practices designed to stimulate their awareness of its diverse semiotic and social functions, and especially its pivotal function as a cognitive tool for learning. Eschewing focus on form approaches “view language acquisition as the accumulation of sets of structures and rules,”

 With respect to emphasizing language in EFL classrooms and content-based instruction, different instructional practices now abound and, as one would thus expect, foreign language learning outcomes differ from one classroom to another. To help in explaining discrepant findings across classroom-based studies, Lyster and Mori (2006) proposed the counterbalance hypothesis, which states that:

 Instructional activities and interactional feedback that act as a counterbalance to the predominant communicative orientation of a given classroom setting will be more facilitative of interlanguage restructuring than instructional activities and interactional feedback that are congruent with the predominant communicative orientation. (p. 294)

 Counter balanced instruction will be invoked throughout this study as a principled means for systematically integrating contentbased and form-focused instructional options. A counterbalanced approach to content-based instruction supports continued foreign language development by orienting learners in the direction opposite to that which their classroom environment has accustomed them. According to the counterbalance hypothesis, instruction that requires learners to vary their attentional focus between, on the one hand, the content to which they usually attend in classroom discourse and, on the other, target language features that are not otherwise attended to, facilitates the destabilization of interlanguage forms. The effort required for learners to shift their attention to language form in a meaning-oriented context is predicted to leave traces in memory that are sufficiently accessible to affect the underlying system. In the view of learning grammar, the hypothesis has arole as a parameter to make the design of media used in learning grammar to balance both the forms and the content.

 Counterbalanced instruction systematically integrates both content-based and form-focused instructional options. The instructional options depicted in Figure 2 encapsulate those that have been considered throughout this study as key components of pedagogy designed to enable learners to process and negotiate language across the curriculum. Lyster (2007) mentions that content-based instructional options include: (a) techniques that teachers employ to make subject matter comprehensible to foreign language learners; (b) opportunities for students to use the second language to mediate content learning during academic tasks; (c) negotiation replete with questions and feedback employed by teachers to scaffold verbal exchanges with students in ways that ensure their participation and appropriation of the targeted content.

Figure 2. Instructional Options to Counterbalance

 He also adds that form-focused instructional options include: (a) noticing and awareness activities designed to make input features salient and to facilitate their intake in declarative form; (b) production practice activities designed to facilitate the proceduralization of target language knowledge; (c) negotiation involving teacher prompts and other engaging feedback that push students to draw optimally on their developing knowledge of the target language and increasingly to take responsibility for their learning. Content-based and form-focused instructional options appear as discrete options. In the spirit of instructional counterbalance, however, content-based and form-focused instructional options are expected to interact with one another in a dialectical fashion and in complementary ways. In keeping with Stern’s (1990, 1992) recommendation, analytic and experiential instructional options are best seen, not as dichotomous, but as complementary pairs along a continuum. Moreover, the vertical orientation of Figure 2 is not intended to depict any hierarchical or linear relationships among instructional options that differentially emphasize input, production, and negotiation. That is, content-based and form-focused instructional options need to be counterbalanced to promote shifts in learners’ attentional focus through activities that interweave balanced opportunities for input, production, and negotiation. Teachers can counterbalance instructional options across the curriculum by interweaving learning activities that vary from more content-based to more formfocused. By orchestrating a diverse range of opportunities for processing and negotiating language across the curriculum, teachers trigger the requisite shifts in learner attention that are predicted by the counterbalance hypothesis to ensure continued second language growth.

Counterbalance as the Basis of Multimedia Program

 Lyster (2007) shows the instructional options as depicted in Figure 2 In line with the multimedia program proposed to use in this study, some dominant characteristics of a counterbalanced approach are used as the bases to create the program based on a counterbalanced approach.

 The characteristics of counterbalanced approach are classified in accordance with the divisions of three models proposed in this study. Table 3 emphasizes that the three should hold both content and form in the media used, namely macromedia flash. The topic of tourism is considered to be a content aspect in balancing with the structure of peripheral verb phrases since, at STKIP PGRI Blitar (subject of this study), English is focused on both teaching terms and tourism terms. The topic of tourism is chosen through which to teach language with content.

Table 3. Characteristics of Counterbalanced Approach in Multimedia Program

Peripheral Verb Phrases in English Structures

 The term peripheral is derived from the verb forms derived into some other phrases, as discussed in this study. They include participial phrases, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases. The peripheral phrases are chosen since they are taught in the advanced grammar to the university students.

 According to Miller (2001), phrases, based on parts of speech are divided into five categories namely: 1) Noun phrase, 2) Adjective phrase, 3) Verb phrase, 4) Adverb phrase, and 5) Prepositional phrase. While he explains that a phrase has its core and periphery. The core will be phrases based on the parts of speech and the periphery phrase consists of phrases that support the core phrase. Here, the researcher draws a figure to explain the scope of phrases. Figure 3 is a figure of core and periphery phrases which is presented in the previous scientific study of the writer.

Figure 3. Scope of Phrases (Revised)

 This review is written to give a brief theoretical and practical review of peripheral verb phrases. To consider the review of phrases discussed here, notice the scope of phrases below to gain a good understanding and review the phrase scope.

 Figure 3 shows that phrases have two major parts, they include core phrases and peripheral phrases. Core phrases are the phrases which are determined as core constituents of grammar and syntax. Peripheral phrases, in syntax, are seen as the derived phrases from basic sentential elements (NP and VP). Meanwhile, Peripheral phrases, in grammar, are made of shortened constructions of basic sentential elements (S and P) in modern English uses.

 In this review, the researcher reviews the peripheral phrases in details to show their uses, constructions, functions, and variations. Peripheral phrases contain two divisions. They include peripheral noun phrases and peripheral verb phrases. In this review, those two things are required to be classified by regarding the subdivisions of the peripheral phrases in details to know the similarity and difference. For further detailed classification of peripheral phrases, Table 4 shows them in details.

Table 4. Classification of Peripheral Phrases

 Peripheral verb phrases are the developmental verb phrases which are derived from function of verb phrases. In this case, the function of verb phrase, in grammar view, is to add and change the function of the verb in sentence structure (subject, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, objective complement, adjuncts, and adverbials). Peripheral verb phrases are categorized into three main divisions. They include gerund phrases, participial phrases and infinitive phrases.

 The three types of peripheral phrases are mostly used to test students in some English proficiency tests like TOEFL. To relate the three with TOEFL, it is necessary to know about the sections that exist in TOEFL. They include a listening section, structure section, reading section, and writing section. The Structure section in TOEFL measures an examinee’s ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. Paulson (2002) states that the language tested is formal, rather than conversational. The topics of the sentences are associated with general academic discourse so that individuals in specific fields of study or from specific national or linguistic groups have no particular advantage. When topics have a national context, it is United States or Canadian history, culture, art, or literature. However, knowledge of these contexts is not needed to answer the questions.

 Paulson (2002) adds that the structure section is also computer-adaptive, with the same two types of questions used on the paper-based TOEFL. These are questions in which examinees must (1) complete an incomplete sentence using one of four answers provided and (2) identify one of four underlined words or phrases that would not be accepted in English. The two question types are mixed randomly rather than being separated into two subsections as in the paperbased TOEFL test. There are 20-25 questions in this section, which is 15-20 minutes long. To be specific, the materials of three peripheral phrases appear in TOEFL especially in the structure section. The existence of peripheral phrases can be seen in Table 5 showing the materials and the descriptions of the structure section in TOEFL.

Table 5. Materials of Structures in TOEFL

 Peripheral verb phrases may appear in TOEFL in testing parallelism, non sentential clauses and phrases, independent clauses, transition, and logic. As seen in Table 6, the examinee of TOEFL should be aware of this in order to answer the questions. Similarly, Chesla (2002) proposes TOEFL materials which can be used as reference to see that mastering three types of peripheral verb phrases; gerund phrase, participial phrase, and infinitive phrase, is essential to learn grammar in academic English test. She depicts the focuses and the sub-materials consisting in TOEFL (both computer-based test and paper-based test).

Table 6. Materials and Topics in TOEFL

 Observing Chesla’s review on the materials of TOEFL, some materials which could use peripheral phrases in TOEFL include subordinate conjunction, phrases and modifiers, parts of speech, verbs, parallelism, gerund, and infinitive. Those TOEFL materials reviewed support the importance of developing the materials of peripheral verb phrases in this study. In other words, the importance is because peripheral verb phrases are the parts of TOEFL materials.

Method

 This study uses a Research and Development (R & D) approach since it is the most appropriate approach or the objectives in this study. Meanwhile, the developmental model used in this study uses the developmental model developed by Borg and Gall. Borg and Gall (1983) stated that ‘educational research and development (R & D) is a process used to develop and validate educational production’. From the definition, the research procedures are conducted in cycles and every procedure passed should be in line with the previous procedure so that it produces a quite new educational product. Latief (2012) adds that the background reason for R&D is the classroom problems related to educational products. In line with two previous schools of R&D, Sugiyono (2012a) mentions that the function of conducting R&D includes reviewing the problems and literature, to develop the products, and to disseminate the products.

 Another reason why the writer uses this approach is that Research and Development is needed to integrate instructional media, namely counterbalanced based multimedia, to develop learning media where the purpose is not only to explore the effectiveness of counterbalanced based media and practice, but also to develop media which are valid, practical, and effective in the classroom. It is supported by Sugiyono (2012b) who mentions the functions of developing educational products including valid, practical, and effective products used in school. Finally, the product can be disseminated to the students to make them independent and to develop their lifelong learning skills.

 The R&D approach used in this study is designed to produce a counterbalanced based multimedia; simulation, drill, and evaluation model in teaching peripheral verb phrases to the second year students at STKIP PGRI Blitar. This approach is used because it is rational, empirical, and systematic. This is what is emphasized by Sugiyono(2012c). Those three aspects are considered to be scientific characteristics.

 Borg and Gall(1983: 775) list a set of procedures conducted in this study, namely;

 ‘Research and information collecting, planning, develop preliminary form of product, preliminary field testing, main product revision, main field testing, operational product revision, operational field testing, final product revision, and dissemination and implementation’

 The procedures of Research and Development mentioned by Borg and Gall above consist of ten procedures that are important in conducting R&D as stated by Borg and Gall (1983: 775).

 This study is conducted in three main steps. The first is to develop counterbalanced based multimedia which is required to analyze the concepts of counterbalanced based multimedia and empirics of the classroom to achieve mastery in grammar. This step begins with a survey, observation, and interview with three grammar lecturers and the two staffs or the Dean of English department at STKIP PGRI Blitar to get the complete and comprehensive data. The second is a preliminary field test in which the counterbalanced based multimedia will be used by the students to learn grammar on peripheral phrases. It is conducted in preliminary subject (9 students as the representatives of each class). The third step is the main field test. As in the preliminary field test, in order to be applicable the media are tested on a large number of students in nine classes to test how valid, practical, and effective the media are in teaching grammar.

Figure 4. Steps of Developing Counterbalanced Based Multimedia

 This research uses a three model media and uses a validation sheet for expert judgement. Validation counts for validation in preliminary and main field testing, a questionnaire to measure the practicality, and the score analyzed statistically to assess its effectiveness.

Results

 The developmental results are the results of research and developmental steps in producing counterbalanced based multimedia on peripheral verb phrases. The three models of media - simulation, drill and practices, and evaluation - are summed up using short report analysis relating to three aspects used in this study. They are concerned with validity, practicality and effectiveness.

Developing Counterbalanced Based Multimedia

 To analyze the students’ needs and problems in the EFL classroom especially in learning grammar, the researcher makes the drafts of three models of multimedia. The multimedia developed in this study consider the form and content which should be produced in alance. Figure 5 shows the raw draft of the counterbalanced based multimedia.

Figure 5. Draft of Peripheral Verb Phrases

 The draft is validated by three experts with expertise like having a Doctorate, at least, in the field of the media development. They include experts of media, teaching EFL, and Linguistics. Validated by those experts, the multimedia completed with course outlines are ready to test in the preliminary field.

Preliminary Field Testing

 In the preliminary stage, the researcher finds valid result of fifty questions made of peripheral verb phrases validated statistically.

 Next, the media validation result is investigated by the researcher. Table 7 below shows the result of the validation on media use.

Table 7. Media Validation Result

 Table 7 shows the results of the 2.61 which explains the systematic, content and language aspects used in counterbalanced based multimedia and which are wholly valid. The score of 2.61≥ 2 based on the criteria used in this study shows the media developed are valid with a few revisions. This revision is regarded to make the media more perfect in the main field testing.

 Meanwhile, the practicality of the counterbalanced based multimedia is measured by using questionnaires to the students and the lecturers using the media in EFL classroom. The measurement in preliminary field testing is conducted after eight meetings done by ten university students chosen randomly from nine classes.

 Its practicality is measured since it is necessary to know the practice of these media when it is used by both the lecturers of grammar and students. The practicality aspects include the language used, whether it is appropriate and understandable to the lecturer and the students. In addition, the content of the media should consider both the structures emphasized in taught grammar and the contents (the contexts) used through the sentences. Lastly, the developer takes into consideration the function of the media in teaching and learning in the EFL classroom.

 From the result of the questionnaire measuring media practicality, it can be seen that 2.42 was the total of average score in the aspects asked to the students, showing that the practicality is categorized as a good media to use.

 The practicality is also shown by the students’ interest during the learning process. The students are more curious to learn and master both the program and grammar as well as possible. Indeed, it shows the students and the lecturer are, however, required to vary their process of teaching and learning grammar. Table 9 below shows the effectiveness of this media seen from the students’ learning scores.

Table 8. Questionnaire Result of Media Practicality

Table 9. Students’ Learning Scores

 As depicted in Table 9, there are three kinds of media used, namely simulation, drill, and evaluation. The average score, 90.00, shows that the media effectiveness in the preliminary field tests is good.

 With little revision, the developer revises the media which has already been tested in the preliminary field before. The aspects reviewed including the layout, content, and the language used in counterbalanced based multimedia. Having been revised, the product is ready to test in the main field testing.

Main Field Testing

 Main field testing means the test of the counterbalanced based multimedia in the main subjects, namely, nine classes at STKIP PGRI Blitar, specifically those sitting the fourth semester in the English Department. The main testing is preceded by a pre-test in the form of a paper-based test of peripheral verb phrases to measure the prior knowledge or peripheral verb phrases to them. After finishing the pre-test on peripheral verb phrases, the researcher collaborates with the grammar lecturers who teach the students using the counterbalanced multimedia. The treatment is held in 8 meetings ended by a computer based evaluation. Consequently, the researcher analyzes the students’ scores before and after treatment, the practicality of counterbalanced based multimedia, and the effectiveness of the media in main testing. The result of students’ scores is depicted in Table 10 below.

Table 10. Comparison of Students Score Before and After Treatment

 The improvement before and after treatment is shown in Table 10 which indicates the use of counterbalanced based multimedia on peripheral verb phrases is effective for the learning progress in grammar. Moreover, the media used can be well implemented both by the lecturer and the students at university level.

 The practicality of the counterbalanced based multimedia in main field testing is measured by the researcher in determining the content, language, ad function of the counterbalanced based multimedia scored by the students and counted into average scores in each aspect measured classically. Table 11 shows the result of the students’ responses on the questionnaire to determine the practicality of the counterbalanced based multimedia used in main field testing. This result gives additional credibility to the result in the preliminary field testing, that the media are practical to use on a large scale and proven by the responses of the students in viewing the counterbalanced based multimedia to be practical in learning peripheral verb phrases.

Table 11. Practicality in Main Field Testing

 Table 11 shows that the level of practicality of the counterbalanced based multimedia is good. It is shown by 2.53 ≥ 2 based on the criteria used in this study that the media developed are practical. The average scores from average counts of the students’ responses toward the questionnaire emphasize that with a large number of students taught using counterbalanced based multimedia, the practicality level is high. It means the media can be implemented to other English departments that teach peripheral verb phrases.

 From the research findings and the developmental products above, the researcherfound that the counterbalanced based multimedia (simulation, drill model, and evaluation) were designed conceptually and empirically. The products were then tested on the university students both on a small scale (preliminary field testing) and on a large scale (main field testing). The results of the tests prove that the media developed arevalid, practical, and effective to use on university students. Therefore, the last step of this research and development is to disseminate the final products to 25 grammar lecturers of English Department permitted by Kopertis (Koordinator Perguruan Tinggi Swasta or Private University Coordinator) VII East Java in the form of a Compact Disk (CD).

Conclusions and Discussion

 Indeed, developing counterbalanced based multimedia on peripheral verb phrases in teaching grammar is necessary since there is a lack of media in teaching grammar and students’ faced problems during grammar learning. Research and development conducted by the researcher aimed at investigating ways of using counterbalanced based multimedia (simulation, drill, and evaluation) that were designed validly, practically, and effectively. The results show the counterbalanced based multimedia developed by the researcher are valid, practical, and effective to use for teaching grammar on peripheral verb phrases (participial phrases, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases) to the university students. This is proven by the high levels of validity, practicality, and effectiveness in both the preliminary study and the main field study. To sum up, the researcher disseminated the final products to 25 grammar lecturers in East Java.

 However, the weakness is that it is only a part of a research and development program. To cover TOEFL in one structural session, peripheral verb phrases are not enough; other grammar topics need to be developed in future. The development of media completed by course outlines is willingly added to the various steps of knowledge steps like analysis, etc. In addition, the continuity of the development process should be well maintained in long term and developed in order that the media can be used for the purpose of lifelong learning and as an ideal media to develop independent learning.

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