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ISSN : 2092-674X (Print)
ISSN : 2092-6758 (Online)
Asia-Pacific Collaborative education Journal Vol.9 No.2 pp.95-102
DOI :

Developing Digital Storytelling Based Local Wisdom Through Blended Learning As An Innovative Media for Teaching English at Eighth Grade Students of Smp Negeri 1 Petang in the Academic Year 2012/2013

I Luh Meiyana Ariss Susanti, S.Pd.,M.Pd
I Luh Meiyana Ariss Susanti, S.Pd., M.Pd. is an English Lecturer at English Education Department of STKIP Agama Hindu Singaraja.
Received Date: April, 30, 2013, Revision received Date: September, 24, 2013, Accepted Date: October, 21, 2013

Abstract

This research was a Research and Development(R&D) project which aimed at developing digitalstorytelling based local wisdom through Blended Learningas an innovative media for teaching English at eighthgrade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang. The developmentmodel used in this research was adapted from thedevelopment of Luther’s model (in Sutopo, 2003). The datawere collected by using documentation technique,interview, observation, and questionnaire. This researchfound that, (1) in developing digital storytelling basedlocal wisdom through a Blended Learning methodrequired a number of chronologically steps, namely:observation, need analysis, media prototype design, expertjudgment, revision of the product, field testing, analyzingof data and finalizing the final product; (2) the total meanscore of the questionnaire filled by the English teacher was4.09, it indicated that the product was categorized asexcellent, and (3) furthermore, the result of thequestionnaire filled by the students was 3.76, this meantthat the implementation of the product could becategorized as good. The results of this study were asexpected and can help both the teachers and the studentsin the process of teaching and learning English, especiallynarrative text.

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Introduction

 The School Based Curriculum (SBC) is the operational curriculum of formal education in Indonesia. The curriculum is developed by considering the principle that the students have a key responsibility to develop their competency in order to be knowledgeable, independent, responsible, in becoming democratic citizens (BNSP in Chintya, 2008).

 Every English teacher is expected to apply English as a main instructional language in the process of teaching and learning. English will be an important part of the student’s real life when the teacher gives opportunities to the students to apply English as often as possible. Therefore, the students will be able to communicate in English well.

 Wahidah (2010) proposed that the inability of many Junior High School students to communicate in English is not caused by the high demands of the Content Standard (SI) and Graduate Competence Standard (SKL), but rather because of classes that were too large, or inadequate facilities. Those all could be said to be an excuse to cover the failure of the teaching and learning process. But, there were some other things which caused problems for students in developing their English.

 The real situation showed that the low level of student’s competency in English, especially in eight grade of Junior High School, considered that in the learning process the students were not able to implement anything gained from the teaching and learning process.

 The other factor was that the teachers still depended on their conventional learning resources such as: student’s worksheet (LKS), textbooks, and other sources that were less relevant. Unfortunately, the types and forms of learning activities in the LKS and textbooks were monotonous and focused only on the receptive skills and grammar. Besides that, the English teachers were not creative enough in utilizing the development of technology and the existence of local wisdom for teaching English. Because of that, the teaching and learning processes were not effective and could not help the students in mastering the expected competencies.

 Based on pre-observation conducted at eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang, there were some students who made serious mistakes in their writing, especially in writing narrative text. They wrote their sentences with incorrect grammar, with misspellings and incorrect punctuation. Moreover, their written organization and development made it difficult to be understood.

 During the observation, the researcher also found that there was no media used for teaching writing narrative text. The only media used was the course book and student’s worksheet (LKS). The students were asked to read the materials in the LKS then they were asked to answer the given questions in written form. The students did not have any challenging activities during the teaching and learning process. The researcher found that the students were not motivated enough in the process of teaching and learning.

 Nowadays, the development of technology increases rapidly in all areas of our life. It is also happen in education; one of the newest technology which is being used in the teaching learning process is digital storytelling. By using digital storytelling as a media for teaching writing, the students will have more chance to practice their writing through face to face instruction and distance learning.

 This kind of media supports the Blended Learning method in teaching English especially for writing skill. The Blended Learning method combines face to face classroom methods with computer-mediated activities to form an integrated instructional approach (Bonk, C. J. & Graham, C. R, 2013). Based on the factors and the situation above, the researcher did research in order to develop local wisdom based digital storytelling through a Blended Learning method as an innovative media for teaching English to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang in the academic year 2012/2013.

 Furthermore, the problems which are discussed in this research are: (1) how to develop digital storytelling based local wisdom through a Blended Learning method as a media for teaching English, especially writing skill to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang, (2) What are the responses of the teacher in applying the digital storytelling based local wisdom through Blended Learning method? (3) What are the responses of the students in applying digital storytelling based local wisdom through Blended Learning method as a media for learning English? Especially for writing skill for the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang.

 In order to solve the problems, the researcher reviewed some relevant theories. The first theory was the concept of Digital Storytelling. Banasewzki (2002) stated that Digital Storytelling is a strategy of using a computer application program in telling a story. Like traditional storytelling, most of digital storytelling covers a topic from a certain point of view. As the name implies, the story contains a combination of digital images, text, sound (narration and music), and web publishing. Related to digital storytelling based local wisdom, Thohir (2011) proposed that local wisdom can be defined as a the effort of people, using their intellect (cognition), to act and behave towards things, objects, or events that occur in a given space. Its meaning is etymology arranged where wisdom is understood as the ability of a person or persons to have a common mind in an act or behavior.

 Based on the explanation above, local wisdom based learning can still offer an alternative solution in the context of Indonesian educational liberalization policy. It is an attempt to strengthen the foundations of the philosophy of true education, where education is an inseparable aspect of society. A true education serves to build individual character to fit the values of wisdom which adopt cultural traditions around it. These two concept were integrated in order to create a new teaching learning atmosphere inside and outside the school, which can be presented through a Blended Learning method, which is understood as a method which integrates face to face learning and distance learning through online or offline learning (Harding, Kaczynski and Wood, 2005).

Discussion

 The media known as Digital Storytelling based Local Wisdom through a Blended Learning Method was developed by following a number of procedures adopted from Luther’s Model (in Sutopo, 2003). The procedures were: conducting a need analysis to particularly analyze the teaching learning process, instructional media used, the characteristics of the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang, and the course books used.

 The observation was conducted on 3 different classes, namely class VIII.1, VIII.5, VIII.11. Class VIII.1 which consisted of 32 students: 13 males and 19 females. Class VIII.5 consisted of 34 students: 14 males and 20 females. Finally, class VIII.11 consisted of 36: 16 males and 20 females.

 During the observation, the material taught in each class was narrative text. The media used were only LKS and textbooks. The use of innovative media as a teaching learning tool was rarely used. That made the teaching learning atmosphere monotonous and the students became passive and less interactive in following the teaching learning process in the classroom. It caused the teaching and learning process to become hampered. The students seemed less interested in participating in the teaching learning process. It also caused the students to become lazy; they did not have their own creativity to express ideas, opinions, or criticism during the teaching learning process.

 The result of the analysis on the characteristics of the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang concluded that generally they had heterogeneous abilities. With such heterogeneous abilities the teaching and learning process was supposed to be actively interactive. However, the fact was the students were still passive in the classroom activities. The main factors that made the students less interactive, less communicative and less creative was the teaching learning process which tended to be monotonous and boring.

 Based on the phenomenon that was observed, the teacher should change the teaching style. The teacher needed a media as a tool to overcome the obstacles faced in the classroom and outside the classroom. The presence of media was expected to facilitate the teacher and students. The media developed was expected to help both the teacher and students in achieving the teaching learning goals in the English subject. Besides, the development of instructional media should also consider the characteristics of the learners. The next step was to analyzed the textbooks and syllabus to match each topic to the curriculum. In this case, the topics were adapted from the School Based Curriculum. This was done to get an idea of the suitability of the material with the Standard Competency and Basic Competency, in order to discover the students' learning needs.

 The researcher found that the types and forms of learning activities in the students’ worksheet (LKS) and textbooks were not in line with syllabus designed. The activities provided by the LKS were not suitable to the activities designed in the syllabus. Sumertayasa (interviewed on August 13th, 2012) said that the LKS focused more on the receptive skills. Such a phenomenon meant that the students could not develop their productive skills because there was little space to express their ideas.

 Designing the prototype of the media was the next step in the procedure of this research. This went through several steps, namely: deciding on the standard and basic competency, deciding on the indicators and goals, designing the speaking materials and activities, and designing the storyboard of the media by applying the platform web blogging of wordpress. After going through these steps, an expert judgement on the instrument, content of media, and the media was then made. There were four instruments to be judged, the instruments for the teacher, students, content expert, and media expert.

 The expert who criticized the instrument for the teacher, students, and content expert was Dr. I Gede Budasi, M.Ed. He is a lecturer in the English Education Department of Undiksha Singaraja. For these three instruments experts evaluated the instructions. The instructions were criticized for not having a clearer choice of words in order to be easily understood. It was explained that the instruction plays an important part in the success of a field testing. The expert explained that the instructions must be written as clearly as possible. For the instrument content expert, one major correction was made, in which the items used in this questionnaire were still inappropriate. The experts noted that two more items should be added, namely the items of “Balikan” and “Tata Bahasa”. Before being revised this questionnaire only had three items, they were; Pembelajaran, Kurikulum, dan Isi Materi.

 The last instrument that was judged was the questionnaire for the media experts. The expert who evaluated this instrument was I Ketut Widi Astawan, S.T, M.Pd who was the multimedia teacher and also the headmaster of SMK TI Bali Global Singaraja. The expert also gave corrections on this instrument. The expert advised that the items used in the questionnaire should be narrowed down into more specific categories. Before expert judgement, the items of the questionnaire were; Tampilan, Pengoperasian Media, Navigasi, dan Pembelajaran. Based on the expert’s correction, the items of the questionnaire were specified int Pewarnaan, Kualitas Video, Penggunaan Huruf, Gambar, Interaktif Menu dan Ikon, Desain Interface, Pengoperasian Media, dan Keamanan Media.

 Based on the experts judgment on the instruments used expert judgement on the content of media and the media itself were conducted. The instruments were then distributed to be filled by the experts relating to the appropriateness of the media. The data obtained related to the appropriateness of the media were analyzed by using Likert Scale criteria proposed by Candiasa (2010). The content of media was judged by two content experts, they were Prof. Dr. N. Padmadewi, M.A and Dr. I Gede Budasi, M.Ed. They are lecturers in the English Education Department of Undiksha Singaraja. The mean score obtained was 4.50. The mean score obtained meant that the content of Digital Storytelling based Local Wisdom through a Blended Learning Method as an innovative media for teaching English for eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang and was categorized as “excellent”.

 Furthermore, the experts also gave several suggestions on the content of media. the experts pointed out that it was necessary to add one more type of task, that was the individual task or project. It was only previously emphasized on one type of task, namely group discussion. Based on this, the experts considered that when an individual task was added, the teaching learning process would be more varied and it would also enabled the teacher to assess the students from a different aspect and perspective. The expert also suggested adding a page that contained a provision of rewards to the students at the end of the teaching learning process. According to the experts, the addition of this page was aimed at increasing the students' motivation in learning. In addition, the reward was also an appreciation of the students' work.

 After this step, the prototype of Digital Storytelling based Local Wisdom through a Blended Learning Method which had been developed was validated by an expert, namely I Ketut Widi Astawan, S.T., M.Pd. The data extracted the media included: appearance, layout, navigation, animation, narration, shape suitability and size of the letters, images, and colors. The mean score obtained was 4.28. It indicated that the media was categorized as “excellent”. The expert also pointed out that the size of the images and videos displayed in the media should be enlarged to be seen more easily by the teachers and students. Therefore, in the teaching learning process, the constraints that might arise because of these aspects could be minimized. Considering this media was aimed at eighth grade students of Junior High School, the composition of colors, images, font size, and the presentation technique should be appropriate and proportionate, the emphasis of the materials needed to highlight a sharp and attractive color or sound effects that support the creation of a funny and exciting teaching learning atmosphere.

 After following these steps and based on the feedback from the experts, the final product of this media was produced. The final product of this research and development was the Digital Storytelling based Local Wisdom through a Blended Learning Method as an innovative media for teaching English, especially for writing skill for eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang in the academic year 2012/2013. The product was in the form of online and offline material. In the online form, it could be accessed on www.electronicenglishcourse.wordpress.com.

 The offline media was in the form of HTML which was compiled onto a Compact Disc (CD) containing the scripts of materials and videos of narrative text, as well as other learning resources.

 The next step involved conducting a field test. This field test was conducted in order to gauge the responses of the teacher and eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang on the implementation of the media. The English teacher of eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang was asked to comment on the media that had been developed. The result of the teacher’s comment obtained through a questionnaire was given after using the media in the teaching learning process. The mean score obtained was 4.09, which meant that the media Digital Storytelling based Local Wisdom through a Blended Learning Method was categorized as “excellent”. From the result obtained, it could be concluded that the teacher gave positive responses on the implementation of the media developed by the researcher. It could be concluded that the teacher was happy in applying the media. The media was able to attract the teacher’s attention. Therefore the teacher became motivated and interested in teaching English through the implementation of this media.

 The field testing was conducted in a computer laboratory which had an internet connection. The reason was that, the media could easily be accessed by the students in the teaching learning process, because the media was in form of a website blog. At this stage an observation was also conducted and questionnaires were given to the students to find out the students' responses in applying the media. The mean score obtained was 3,76, which meant that the media was categorized as “good”. From the mean score obtained, the students’ responses in applying the media were positive. They also felt comfortable and relaxed in using the media during the teaching learning activities. They felt more interested in learning new topics because it was considered that the students preferred to learn through examples rather than concepts.

 During the implementation of the media the students felt comfortable and facilitated well. The students became more motivated because the teacher could monitor them anytime. When the students needed help, the teacher was ready every time they needed it. In addition, the media could also help students to develop their skills in various areas, such as communication skill and skill to operate a computer. The students also found it very easy to adapt to this media. They responded that the learning activity was no longer monotonous as before because this media provided some alternative ways of learning, namely by learning individually or through group work. The media was not only accessible in school, but also in other places that had an internet connection. The media also provided the students with a new learning environment.

Conclusions

 There are some steps which should be followed in developing digital storytelling based local wisdom through a Blended Learning method as a media for teaching English, especially for writing skill These steps are: (1) observation of eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang to identify the problems, (2) analysis in order to identify the needs of the students and the teacher, (3) designing the prototype of the media, (4) expert judgment and feedback, (5) revising the product based on the expert’s feedback, (6) field testing, (7) analyzing the data and revising the product, and (8) finalizing the product;

 The field testing was done in order to gauge the effectiveness of the media for teaching writing. In order to know the teacher’s responses, the researcher delivered a questionnaire to the English teacher. The total of the mean score of the questionnaire was 4.09. Based on the results of the questionnaire filled by the English teacher it can be concluded that the media was “excellent”.

 Furthermore, the students also were given an opportunity to give responses about the media. In this case, the researcher also delivered questionnaires to each student after the process of teaching and learning. After calculating the results of the questionnaire, the total mean score was 3.76. It indicated that, the media was “good” for teaching English, especially for writing skill at eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Petang

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