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ISSN : 2092-674X (Print)
ISSN : 2092-6758 (Online)
Asia-Pacific Collaborative education Journal Vol.9 No.2 pp.113-124
DOI :

Teaching in a Digital Era: English Lecturers’ Readiness toward the Internet Use in Teaching and Learning at Selected Higher Education Institutions in Indonesia

Hadiyanto , Amirul Mukminin, Makmur, Marzul Hidayat, Failasofah
Hadiyanto is a faculty member at Faculty of Education, Jambi University, Indonesia. He holds an M.Ed. in TESL and a PhD in adult and professional development education from the National University of Malaysia. He is currently a secretary of Master’s program in English Education at Jambi University.
Amirul Mukminin is a faculty member at Faculty
of Education, Jambi University, Indonesia. He
holds a PhD from Florida State University, USA in
Educational Leadership and Policy Studies and
MS in educational sciences from Groningen
University, the Netherlands. He received a
Fulbright scholarship to pursue his PhD and an
Erasmus Mundus postdoctoral researcher,
University of Groningen, the Netherlands.
Makmur is a faculty member at Faculty of
Education, Jambi University, Indonesia. He holds
an MA in American Studies from University of
Gajah Mada, Indonesia and an MA in TEFL from
Groningen University, the Netherlands.
Marzul Hidayat is a faculty member at Faculty of
Education, Jambi University, Indonesia. He holds
an MA in applied linguistics from UK and is
currently a Fulbright PhD candidate at the College
of Education, Florida State University, the United
States in Educational Leadership and Policy
Studies.
Failasofah is a faculty member at Faculty of
Education, Jambi University, Indonesia. She holds
an M.Ed. from Indonesian University of Education
in TEFL.
Received Date: April,21, 2013, Revision received Date: September, 30, 2013, Accepted Date: October, 20, 2013

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examineEnglish lecturers’ readiness toward internet use inEnglish teaching and learning at selected universitiesin Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. A questionnaire wasused as a research instrument to sixty-fiveparticipants who were recruited through a variety ofnetworking sources, but forty-seven participantscompleted and returned the questionnaires. Datawere analyzed by using descriptive statistics, PearsonProduct Moment Correlation, and a t-test. The majorfindings indicated that the English lecturers’readiness toward Internet use for teaching andlearning was at an average level. This study alsofound that there was a significant positive correlationbetween the lecturers’ background of internet use andthe level of lecturers’ readiness toward Internet use.There was a positive correlation between lecturers’knowledge readiness and attitude readiness. However,there were significant differences in the level ofreadiness between English lecturers at publicinstitutions and private institutions. The findings ofthis study shed light on policy makers and leaders’understanding of English lecturers’ readiness towardinternet use in English teaching and learning inIndonesian higher education. Policy implications andfuture research are also discussed.

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Introduction

 Dramatic cultural, social and political changes have happened in the world today and have altered issues of content, access to, and means of communication (Mukminin, 2012), thereby influencing the integration of technologyenhanced learning approaches, methods and taxonomies (e.g. internet) into teaching and learning process at the university level. According to Repetto and Trentin (2011), more and more higher education institutions around the world use the internet for their courses delivery. The global use of the internet might have influenced higher education institutions in Indonesia to follow the current trend of the technological usage. Lecturers or teachers’ readiness for internet use constitutes an important issue to be raised as part of the current issues in e-learning and a factor to be investigated before the integration of the internet into teaching and learning at university. The long-term success of the internet use largely depends on the readiness of lecturers to integrate the application into teaching and learning. According to Chapnick (2000) and Murphrey, Lindner, Elbert, and Mina (2002), lecturers represent a significant parameter in technology systems’ adoption. Lecturers’ readiness considers the availability and design of the human-support system. Additionally, Eastment (1999) and Ali (2004) revealed that the internet will play a progressively more important role in future education. To be able to take part and even to compete in the global education system, teachers or lecturers must be ready to anticipate the future challenges of internet use for the needs of teaching and learning development today. Carr and Miller (2001 as cited in Borotis & Poulymenakou, 2005) stated that as more and more organizations decide to join and expand elearning interventions, it becomes more than critical to assess their readiness to utilize technology in order to implement it successfully. Chapnick (2000) and Murphrey et al., (2002) claim that humans represent a significant parameter in technology systems’ adoption. Human resources readiness is important to anticipate the lag of technological advancement and higher education as a pioneer of changes. Furthermore, they should be aware, sensitive, reflective and critical to respond to the new trend, of internet use in teaching and learning. In other words, the implementation of internet use for the needs of teaching and learning much depends on the human resources readiness.

 However, in Indonesia as a developing country, research on lecturers’ readiness toward internet integration into classroom at university level is rare, especially research on English lecturers’ readiness toward internet use for teaching and learning at higher education institutions in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. This study was an attempt to fill a gap in the lecturers’ readiness toward internet use literature in Indonesian higher education and to fill the scarcity of literature and information on Indonesian English lecturers’ readiness toward internet use for teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to examine English lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in English teaching and learning at selected universities in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. The following research questions guided this study:

 1. What is the lecturers’ readiness level toward internet use in English teaching and learning?

 2. What is the lecturers’ readiness in terms of attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge toward internet use in English teaching and learning?

 3. Is there any correlation between lecturers’ frequency of internet use and the level of lecturers’ readiness toward internet use?

 4. Is there any correlation between lecturers’ knowledge readiness and attitude readiness?

 5. Is there any difference of lecturers’ readiness between lecturers from English lecturers at public institutions and private institutions?

 One of the rationales on the comparison of readiness between the lecturers in public and private institutions is to provide policymakers at university and faculty levels with evidence which they could use to facilitate their lecturers, particularly English lecturers, to incorporate the internet in their academic activities.

Literature Review

 Humans represent a significant parameter in technology systems’ adoption. Human resource readiness considers the availability and design of the human-support system (Chapnick, 2000; Murphrey et al., 2002). In terms of running, developing, and maintaining internet use in teaching and learning and in order to achieve success in internet use, both teachers or lecturers and students should be ready to utilize the internet, students are the consumers who will also use the Internet for e-learning programs to follow courses and to gain new knowledge and skills. Additionally, at the university level, lecturers play a vital role in developing and maintaining an effective internet learning environment and must possess a readiness to perform successfully.

 However, some lecturers from traditional classroom environment might easily adapt to the online model, while others may find the model challenging at first. Therefore, the readiness of lecturers is extremely important in this case. The lecturers’ readiness in this study constitutes a condition that the lecturers mentally accept new changes toward internet use for teaching and learning in four factors of readiness. The four factors of readiness are attitude readiness, motivation readiness, awareness readiness, and knowledge readiness. In the following part, the researchers discuss the rational of the four factors that are going to be used to measure the lecturers’ readiness toward internet use.

 The first factor relates to the attitude readiness. Several researchers agree upon attitude as a factor of readiness toward e-learning. For example, Violato, Mariniz, and Hunter (1989) and Koohang (1989 as cited in Yuen & Ma, 2004) argued that teachers' attitudes constitute one of the major factors affecting their initial acceptance of computer technology and their future behavior regarding computer usage, but some e learning programs often do not emphasize teachers’ attitude in the implementation of e learning in the classroom. Additionally, Koszalka, (2001) revealed that a possible explanation may be related to the teachers’ mental state of readiness to adopt this innovation. This state of readiness is the teachers’ attitude toward the use of the web resources in the classroom. Also, Teo (2006) who investigated the students’ readiness toward e-learning stated that attitude as one of the factors that should be possessed before adopting new technology.

 The second factor is motivation readiness. Koszalka (2001) who investigated teachers’ perception of learners’ readiness toward elearning revealed that teachers seemed to agree that one of the major issues with regard to learner readiness on e-learning is motivation. Additionally, Watkins et al. (2004), in their research of assessing readiness for e-learning stated that motivation as one of teachers’ readiness factors. Ulbrich and Pacnik (2004) also stated that an issue of human motivation in implementing e-learning is important to be considered.

 The next factor is awareness readiness. Rose and Cholewka (2004) argued that the awareness factor should be possessed by teachers toward online integration into classroom. In addition, Ulbrich and Pacnik (2004) and Egnatoff (2004) argued that the value of teachers’ awareness as prior knowledge should be assessed before going to the next step of e-learning implementation. The last factor is knowledge readiness. Krishnakumar and Rajesh (2011) in their research found that teachers or lecturers who had knowledge of computers tended to have positive knowledge of e-learning compared to those lecturers who had no knowledge of computers in higher education. In summary, attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge readiness that each lecturer has toward e-learning would influence the success of incorporating internet into teaching and learning at university level. In this study, the four factors are the framework to investigate English lecturers’ readiness toward the internet use in English teaching and learning at selected universities in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Methods

Research Site and Participants

 The site for this study was at four Indonesian higher education institutions in Jambi province, Sumatra, consisting of one public university, one public Islamic university, one private university, and one private computer science institute. At the beginning, sixty-five English lecturers of the four higher education institutions in Jambi, Indonesia wanted to voluntarily participate in the present study. The sixty-five participants were recruited through a variety of networking sources. However, fortyseven (70%) participants completed the questionnaires and eighteen (30 %) of them did not return the questionnaire. The biggest number of participants was 23 (48.9%) from the public university. Then, nine (19.1%) participants were from the private university, eight (17.0%) participants were from the public Islamic university, seven (14.9%) were from the computer science institute.

 Also, the age ranged from 26 to 50 years. Additionally, by gender, twenty-three (48.9%) participants were male and twenty-four (51.1%) were female. By educational background, twentyeight (59.6%) of the participants had an undergraduate degree, nineteen (40.4%) of the participants had a master’s degree, and none of them had a PhD degree. By teaching experience, twelve (25.5%) of the participants had less than 1 year to 3 years of teaching experience. Fourteen (29.8%) of them had teaching experience of between 4 and 7 years, seven (14.9%) had teaching experience of between 8 and 11 years, six (12.8%) had teaching experience of between 12 until 15 years, and eight (17.0%) had teaching experience more than16 years.

Data Collection and Analysis

 Data collection consisted of a demographic background survey and survey questionnaires. All participants were asked to complete a demographic survey. The survey was used to gather information on participants’ age, gender, teaching experience, and educational backgrounds. The survey questionnaires were used to examine English lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in English teaching and learning at four selected universities in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. The survey questionnaires were personally administered with the help of one of the researchers and one of the lecturers at the research sites. None of participants received any kind of compensation for their participation in this study. The questionnaires consisted of two major sections, including (1) items related to access to Internet, number of hours using computers per week, and frequency of using internet tools and (2) items related to attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge readiness. There were seven items used for measuring attitudes, thirteen items for measuring motivation, seven items for measuring awareness, and nine items for measuring knowledge readiness.

 The data were analyzed statistically in order to interpret the mean score of lecturers’ readiness and Internet usage background as presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Interpretation of Mean Score

 For the analysis of items of each construct, the responses of the lecturers referred to three groups. The readiness construct that has a mean score from 1.00 to 2.33 fall into the low readiness level. Meanwhile, if the mean score is between 2.34 and 3.66, the level of readiness of the lecturer reaches the average or neutral level. Additionally, if the mean score is between 3.67 and 5.00, it is interpreted that the lecturers have a high level of readiness.

Results

Reliability

 This research was a survey research method and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to determine its reliability. The reliability analysis for the attitude construct yielded an Alpha (α) of 0.757 and the corrected item-total correlation was above 0.250. The result of the reliability analysis for the motivation construct showed a Cronbach Alpha (α) of 0.872, and the corrected item-total correlation was above 0.250. The awareness construct presented an alpha (α) of 0.725, and the lowest corrected item-total correlation was 0.262. Therefore, the reliability of the questionnaire was acceptable.

Internet Usage Background

 The English lecturers’ background of internet use was examined in terms of internet access places and frequency of internet use. The finding of this study as displayed in Table 2 indicated that only four English lecturers (8.5%) had an Internet connection at home while forty‐seven English lecturers (100%) reported that the Internet connection was available at their institutions. Additionally, the data in this study showed that twenty‐three English lecturers (48.9%) revealed that their faculty or colleges had an internet connection and forty‐four English lecturers (93%) reported that there were other means to access the internet to support their teaching and learning process.

Table 2. Internet Access for Teaching and Learning

 For the frequency of internet use, in this study, the results of analysis of the data showed that thirty‐one English lecturers (66%) from the four selected higher education institutions in Jambi reported that they had a low frequency of internet use; while sixteen of them (34%) were at an average frequency of internet use. The results of this study also indicated that none of the participants attained a high frequency of internet use. The analysis of the data indicated that the overall mean score of English lecturers’ frequency of internet use at the four selected higher education institutions in Jambi was 2.17, suggesting that the frequency of internet use was low.

Level of English Lecturers’ Readiness toward Internet Usage

 The survey questionnaires were used to examine English lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in English teaching and learning at four selected universities in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. The results of analysis indicated that the mean score of the English lecturers’ attitude Readiness was 3.87, indicating that English lecturers had a positive attitude toward internet use for teaching and learning. Additionally, the analysis indicated that the mean score of the English lecturers’ motivation was 3.79, suggesting that the lecturers in this study had a high level of motivation readiness. For the mean score of the English lecturers’ awareness readiness, the result of analysis showed that the score was 3.57, implying that the lecturers’ awareness was at an average level. Additionally, for knowledge readiness, the mean score was 3.13, indicating that the lecturers’ knowledge readiness was at an average level. The mean score of the English lecturers’ readiness for internet use as a whole was 3.60, implying that the level of English lecturers’ readiness was average as presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Mean Scores of Constructs from Lecturers’ Reports

English Lecturers’ Attitude, Motivation, Awareness, and Knowledge Readiness toward Internet Use

 The analysis of the data related to English lecturers’ attitude readiness toward internet use at four selected universities in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia indicated that thirty‐two participants (68%) reported that they had positive attitude readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 3.71 and 5.00. Additionally, fifteen participants (32%) indicated that they had a neutral attitude readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 3.00 and 3.57. However, the analysis of the data indicated that no participants had negative attitude readiness toward internet use. In terms of English lecturers’ motivation readiness toward internet use, the results of the data analysis indicated that thirty‐three participants (70%) had high motivation readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 3.69 and 5.00. Fourteen participants (30%) were at an average level of motivation readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 3.23 and 3.62. However, the data indicated that no participants rated themselves at a low level of motivation readiness.

 Additionally, regarding the English Lecturers’ awareness readiness toward internet use at four selected research sites, the results of analysis showed that twenty‐eight participants (60%) were at an average level of awareness readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 2.88 and 3.63 while nineteen participants (40%) were at a high level of awareness readiness toward internet use with a mean score of between 3.75 and 4.13. Nevertheless, none of participants had a low level of awareness readiness toward internet use for the teaching and learning process.

 In this study, the analysis of the data with reference to English Lecturers’ knowledge readiness indicated that no participants reported that they had a low level of knowledge readiness toward internet use. Forty‐three participants (92%) rated themselves at an average level of knowledge readiness. However, it was found that there were four participants (8%) that had a high level of knowledge readiness toward internet use for teaching and learning.

Relationships and Differences

 Pearson product–moment correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between the frequency of internet use and the level of readiness. It was found that there was a significant positive relationship between the frequency of internet use and lecturers’ readiness level with p=0.03<0.05. However, the strength of the relationship was at 0.255, suggesting that the relationship between the frequency of internet use and the level of readiness was weak.

 To examine the relationship between knowledge readiness and attitude readiness, Pearson product–moment correlation analyses were also performed .The analysis result showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the knowledge readiness and attitude readiness with p= 0.04<0.05. Nevertheless, the strength of the relationship was at .252, implying that the relationship between knowledge readiness and attitude readiness was weak.

 To compare the differences of the level of readiness toward internet use between English lecturers at public institutions and private institutions, t‐test analysis was performed, which was 2.95. The results showed that there was a different level of readiness toward internet use between English lecturers at public institutions and private institutions with p = 0.039< 0.005 between English lecturers at public institutions with a mean score of 3.65 and English lecturers at private institutions with a mean score of 3.51 as presented in Table 4.

Table 4. The Level of Readiness toward Internet Use between English Lecturers at Public and Private Institutions

Discussion

 In this digital era, lecturers should have computer literacy if they want to be successful in integrating e‐learning into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to examine English lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in English teaching and learning at four selected higher education institutions in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Although the nature and degree of attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge readiness of English lecturers at four selected higher education institutions varied, the findings of this study shed light on our understanding of English lecturers’ readiness toward internet use in English teaching and learning. In this study, in terms of English lecturers’ readiness level toward internet use in English teaching and learning, the overall mean of the lecturers’ readiness toward internet usage was 3.60, suggesting that the lecturers had only an average level of readiness toward internet use for teaching and learning. The implications of this major finding were that lecturers should be more exposed to the benefits and advantages of using the internet for teaching and learning in the era of information and communication technology.

 Lecturers have an essential part in developing and maintaining an effective Internet learning environment and should have a set of readiness to perform successfully. Previous literature has indicated that teachers' attitudes constitute one of the major factors affecting their initial acceptance of computer technology and their future behavior regarding computer use (Violato, Mariniz, & Hunter, 1989; Koohang, 1989 in Yuen & Ma, 2004). The findings of this study indicated that in terms of attitude toward internet usage in English teaching and learning, the majority of the lecturers (68%) had a positive attitude readiness. The positive attitude toward internet use was a good indicator that English lecturers at four selected higher education institutions welcomed internet technology into their classes.

 A substantial number of studies have addressed motivation readiness. For example, Watkins et al. (2004) stated that motivation is one of teachers’ readiness factors and Ulbrich and Pacnik (2004) stated that the issue of human motivation in implementing e‐learning is an important consideration. The findings of this study indicated that 70% of participants had high motivation readiness toward internet use with the overall mean of the lecturers’ motivation readiness toward internet usage at 3.8. This indicated that the lecturers were highly motivated toward internet use for teaching and learning, suggesting that with a high motivation, the lecturers would become active instructors. Lecturers would reflect on their motivation and the use of motivational strategies in teaching and learning by using the internet.

 Teachers or lecturers’ awareness toward online integration in the classroom is an essential factor (Rose & Cholewka, 2004). The findings of this study showed that 60% of English lecturers had an average level of awareness readiness and 40% of them had a high level of awareness readiness toward internet use at four selected research sites, indicating that most of the participants were aware of using the internet in the teaching and learning processes. However, lecturers’ average level toward internet use indicates that there should be a continuous need for English lecturers to be introduced to internet facilities for teaching and learning at four selected higher education institutions in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia.

 In terms of the knowledge readiness, previous literature has indicated that teachers’ knowledge about the innovation such as web technology is an essential factor in adopting new technology (Krishnakumar & Rajesh, 2011). Our findings indicated that 92% of participants were at an average level of knowledge readiness, suggesting that most of our participants had a high enough level of knowledge to include the internet in their teaching and learning process. Their average level of knowledge also suggested that although they lived in a developing country, they had enough knowledge to adopt technology in their academic activities in higher education.

 For the frequency of internet use, in this study, the results of analysis of the data showed that thirty‐one English lecturers (66%) from the four selected higher education institutions in Jambi reported that they had a low frequency of internet use while sixteen of them (34%) were at an average frequency of internet use usage. The results of this study also indicated that none of the participants attained a high frequency of internet use. The analysis of the data indicated that the overall mean score of English lecturers’ frequency in using the internet at the four selected higher education institutions in Jambi was 2.17, suggesting that their frequency internet use was low.

 For the correlation between lecturers’ frequency of internet use and the level of lecturers’ readiness toward internet use, in this study, lecturers’ internet frequency was converted into three levels: low, average, and high. The analysis of results showed that there was a significant relationship between lecturers’ frequency of internet use and readiness, suggesting that those who had a higher level of frequency tended to have a higher level of readiness toward internet use. The lecturers who had a higher level of frequency toward internet use had an average mean score 3.57 of readiness and lecturers who had an average level of experience had an average mean score of 3.54 readiness.

 For the correlation between lecturers’ knowledge readiness and attitude readiness, our findings showed that there was a significant relationship between the knowledge readiness and attitude readiness. However, the relationship between knowledge readiness and attitude readiness was weak, implying that lecturers who had a higher level of knowledge were more positive toward internet use for teaching and learning.

 Another interesting trend in our study indicated that there were differences in the level of readiness towards internet use between English lecturers at public institutions and private institutions. The differences could be seen from the mean scores of the both groups of lecturers. English lecturers at public institutions had a mean score higher (3.65) than English lecturers at private institutions with a mean score of 3.51. These differences might be due to the fact that the internet was first introduced to public institutions. Another possibility might also be caused by the fact that English lecturers at public institutions had higher educational qualifications than English lecturers at private institutions, suggesting that they might be more active in incorporating the internet in their academic activities.

Policy Implications

 Many teachers or lecturers know how they learn best, but do not necessarily take into account how their students learn best. Implications for higher education policies and programs can be drawn from the findings of this study. The findings of this study suggest readiness toward internet use is a critical factor in integrating the use of the internet for teaching and learning at four selected higher education institutions in Jambi, Indonesia. Our findings indicated that English lecturers at the four selected research sites were not highly ready to use the internet in their teaching and learning processes. To address this issue, policymakers at university and faculty levels should facilitate their lecturers, particularly English lecturers, to incorporate the internet in their academic activities. ICT Training at university or faculty levels may be one of the alternative solutions for helping lecturers to be more intense in using ICT or the internet for their academic activities.

 Our findings also showed that English lecturers at public institutions were more ready than those at private institutions for using the internet for academic activities. The Ministry of National Education through the Directorate of Indonesian Higher Education should provide policies and financial programs that will focus on how to facilitate lecturers at private institutions in Indonesia to have more training in using the internet in their academic activities in this era of globalization era. Training them in ICT in the era of globalization and digitalization is important not only for themselves, but also for their universities to go global.

Limitations and Future Research

 While this study will potentially contribute to the sort of evidence necessary for providing support in terms of English lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in English teaching and learning in higher education institutions, our findings should be considered in light of several potential limitations. First our sample size (47) was limited by the small size of English lecturers at four selected higher education institutions in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Generalizability of the findings to English lecturers in any other higher education institutions in Indonesian is cautioned. Future research should be conducted with a larger sample of lecturers at higher educational Institutions in Jambi or other Indonesian provinces, which may provide different perspectives on lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in teaching and learning.

 Our results may be limited because we analyzed the data by merging English lecturers at public institutions and private institutions. Future research could focus on lecturers at private universities or public universities in order to get their perspectives. Additionally, in terms of research method, this study used a survey method; future research could study lecturers’ readiness (attitude, motivation, awareness, and knowledge) toward internet use in teaching and learning qualitatively in order to obtain their in‐depth perspectives, feelings, and thoughts.

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